Whether ammonia-forming ingredients added to tobacco and ammonia in smoke affect the ability of the Cambridge filter pad to trap nicotine in the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) method was examined. Three commercial cigarettes, two industry reference cigarettes, and four specially designed test cigarettes were used in this study to represent cigarettes with different construction and mainstream (MS) smoke yield characteristics. One of the commercial cigarettes, a US 1998 Marlboro Lights¯ King Size cigarette, was used as a control cigarette for the four experimental test cigarettes. The test cigarettes differed from the control cigarette as follows: first, a reduction in ammonia-forming ingredients added to the reconstituted tobaccos; second, no ammonia-forming ingredients added to the reconstituted tobacco; third, no ingredients at all added to the reconstituted tobaccos; and fourth, no ingredients at all added to the entire tobacco blend. An XAD-4 tube was placed downstream of the standard Cambridge filter pad in the FTC method to trap the gas-vapor phase nicotine for subsequent analysis. The Cambridge filter pad used in the FTC method was determined to provide greater than 99% trapping efficiency for MS smoke nicotine from cigarettes with widely different soluble ammonia levels in filler and MS smoke ammonia yields.
1. Ingebrethsen, B.: The physical properties of main–-stream cigarette smoke and their relationship to depo-sition in the respiratory tract; in: Extrapolation of dosi-metric relationships for inhaled particles and gases, Academic Press, San Diego, 1989, pp 125–141.
2. Baker, R.: Smoke chemistry; in: Tobacco. Production, Chemistry and Technology, edited by D.L. Davis and M.T. Nielsen, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 1999.
3. Ingebrethsen, B. and C.S. Lyman: Particle formation and growth in gases from totally filtered mainstream cigarette smoke; Aerosol Sci. Tech. 36 (2002) 267–276.
4. Seeman, J.I., P.J. Lipowicz, J.-J. Piade, L. Poget, E.B. Sanders, J.P. Snyder, and C.G. Trowbridge: On the deposition of volatiles and semi-volatiles from cigarette smoke aerosols. The relative rates of transfer of nicotine and ammonia from particles to the gas phase; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17 (2004) 1020–1037.
5. Stedman, R.L.: The chemical composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke; Chem. Rev. 68 (1968) 153–207.
6. Schmeltz, I. and D. Hoffmann: Nitrogen-containing compounds in tobacco and tobacco smoke; Chem. Rev. 77 (1977) 295–311.
7. Green, C.R. and A. Rodgman: The tobacco chemists’ research conference: A half century forum for advances in analytical methodology of tobacco and its products; Recent Adv. Tob. Sci. 22 (1996) 131–304.
8. Pillsbury, H.C., C.C. Bright, K.J. O'Connor, and F.W. Irish: Tar and nicotine in cigarette smoke; J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chem. 52 (1969) 458–462.
9. Rodgman, A.: FTC “tar” and nicotine in mainstream smoke: A retrospective; Recent Adv. Tob. Sci. 23 (1997) 5–74.
10. ISO 3402: Determination of nicotine content in smoke condensates. Gas chromatographic method; International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991 (revised 1999).
11. Rustemeier, K. and J.-J. Piade: Determination of nicotine in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke; in: Analytical determination of nicotine and related compounds and their metabolites, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999, pp 489–530.
12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Risks associated with smoking cigarettes with low machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine; NIH Pub. No. 02-5074 ed., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, October 2001.
13. Kozlowski, L.T., J.E. Hennigfield, and J. Brigham: Cigarettes, nicotine & health; Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2001, pp 54–56.
14. Crooks, E.L. and D. Lynn: The measurement of intra-puff nicotine yield; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 15 (1992) 75–86.
15. Kessler, D.A.: Testimony. The control and manipulation of nicotine in cigarettes; Subcommittee on Health and the Environment Committee on Energy and Com-merce, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., 1994.
16. Philip Morris USA (2003) Tobacco ingredients; http://www.philipmorrisusa.com/product_facts/ingre-dients/tobacco_ingredients.asp, accessed on 11 October 2005.
17. R.J. Reynolds (2003) Tobacco ingredients; http://www.rjrt.com/smoking/ingredientsCover.aspx, accessed on 5 January 2006.
18. Kessler, D.A., A.M. Witt, P.S. Barnett, M.R. Zeller, S.L. Natanblut, J.P. Wilkenfeld, C.C. Lorraine, L.J. Thompson, and W.B. Schultz: The Food and Drug Administration's regulation of tobacco products; New Eng. J. Med. 335 (1996) 988–994.
19. Kessler, D.A., P.S. Barnett, A.M. Witt, M.R. Zeller, J.R. Mande, and W.B. Schultz: The legal and scientific basis for FDA's assertion of jurisdiction over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 277 (1997) 405–409.
20. Hurt, R.D. and C.R. Robertson: Prying open the door to the tobacco industry's secrets about nicotine; J. Am. Med. Assoc. 280 (1998) 1173–1181.
21. Pankow, J.F., B.T. Mader, L.M. Isabelle, W. Luo, A. Pavlick, and C. Liang: Conversion of nicotine in tobacco smoke to its volatile and available free-base form through the action of gaseous ammonia; Environ. Sci. Technol. 31 (1997) 2428–2433 (Additions and corrections 33 (1999) 1320).
22. Pankow, J.F.: A consideration of the role of gas/particle partitioning in the deposition of nicotine and other tobacco smoke compounds in the respiratory tract; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14 (2001) 1465–1481.
23. Henningfield, J.E., N.L. Benowitz, G.N. Connolly, R.N. Davis, N. Gray, M.L. Myers, and M. Zeller: Reducing tobacco addiction through tobacco product regulation; Tob. Control 13 (2004) 132–135.
24. Henningfield, J.E., J.F. Pankow, and B.E. Garrett: Ammonia and other chemical base tobacco additives and cigarette nicotine delivery: Issues and research needs; Nicotine Tob. Res. 6 (2004) 199–205.
25. Bates, C., M. Jarvis, and G. Connolly (1999): Tobacco additives – cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction; Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html, accessed on 5 January 2006.
26. Willems, E.W., B. Rambali, W. Vleeming, A. Opper-huizen, and J.G.C. van Amster: Significance of ammonium compounds on nicotine exposure to cigarette smokers; Food Chem. Toxicol. 44 (2006) 678–688.
27. Saint-Jalm, Y., G. Duval, T. Conte, and I. Bonnichon: Mechanisms of transfer of ammonia in cigarette smoke from ammonium compounds in tobacco; 2000 CORESTA Congress, Lissabon, Portugal, Paper ST9.
28. Ellis, C.L., R.H. Cox, C.H. Callicutt, S.W. Laffoon, K.F. Podraza, J.I. Seeman, R.D. Kinser, D.E. Farthing, and F.H. Hsu: The effect of ingredients added to tobacco in a commercial Marlboro Lights cigarette on FTC nicotine yield, “Smoke pH,” and Cambridge filter trapping efficiency; 1999 CORESTA Meeting, Innsbruck, Paper ST 2.
29. Armitage, A.K., M. Dixon, B.E. Frost, D.C. Mariner, and N.M. Sinclair: The effect of tobacco blend additives on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on subsequent plasma nicotine concentrations during cigarette smoking; Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17 (2004) 537–544.
30. Callicutt, C.H., R.H. Cox, F. Hsu, R.D. Kinser, S.W. Laffoon, P. Lee, K.F. Podraza, E.B. Sanders, and J.I. Seeman: The role of ammonia in the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to mainstream smoke; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., in press.
31. Dixon, M., K. Lambing, and J.I. Seeman: On the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to the smoker. A brief review of ammonia and “pH” factors; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 19 (2000) 103–113.
32. Seeman, J.I.: Using “basic principles” to understand complex science: Nicotine smoke chemistry and literature analogies; J. Chem. Ed. 82 (2005) 1577–1582.
33. Lipowicz, P. and J.J. Piade: Theory and subsequent deposition of nicotine from mainstream cigarette smoke in a denuder tube; J. Aerosol Res. 35 (2004) 33–45.
34. Seeman, J.I., J.A. Fournier, J.B. Paine III, and B.E. Waymack: Thermal properties of nonprotonated and protonated nicotine. The use of thermolysis as a model for smoke formation chemistry; J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (1999) 5133–5145.
35. Fournier, J.A., J.B. Paine III, J.I. Seeman, D.W. Armstrong, and X. Chen: Thermal mechanisms for the transfer of amines, including nicotine, to the gas phase and aerosols; Heterocycles 55 (2001) 59–74.
36. Kinser, R.D., F.H. Hsu, D.E. Farthing, L.D. Johnson, and C.L. Ellis: Nicotine collection efficiency in the FTC nicotine method; 53rd Tobacco Science Research Conference, Montreal, Canada, Program Booklet and Abstracts Vol. 53, Paper No. 46, 1999.
37. Davies, H.M. and A. Vaught: Research cigarettes; Tobacco and Health Research Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1990.
38. Parrish, M.E., J.L. Lyons-Hart, and K.H. Shafer: Puff-by-puff and intrapuff analysis of cigarette smoke using infrared spectroscopy; Vibrational Spect. 27 (2001) 29–42.
39. Parrish, M.E. and C.N. Harward: Measurement of formaldehyde in a single puff of cigarette smoke using tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy; Applied Spect. 54 (2000) 1665–1677.
40. Tang, H., G. Richards, K. Gunther, J. Crawford, M.L. Lee, E.A. Lewis, and D.J. Eatough: Determination of gas phase nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine, and parti-culate phase nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke with a collection bed-capillary gas chromatography system; J. High Resol. Chromat. Chromat. Comm. 11 (1988) 775–782.
41. Ogden, M.W., K.C. Maiolo, P.R. Nelson, D.L. Heavner, and C.R. Green: Artifacts in determining the vapour-particulate phase distribution of environmental tobacco smoke nicotine; Environ. Technol. 14 (1993) 779–785.
42. Ogden, M.W. and P.R. Nelson: Detection of alkaloids in environmental tobacco smoke; in: Modern methods of plant analysis, edited by H.F. Linskens and J.F. Jackson, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994, pp 163–189.
43. Ogden, M.W. and K.C. Maiolo: Comparative evalu-ation of diffusive and active sampling systems for determining airborne nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine; Environ. Sci. Technol. 26 (1992) 1226–1234.
44. American Society for Testing and Materials: Standard test method for nicotine and 3-ethylenylpyridine in indoor air, Method No. D 5075-96; in: Annual book of ASTM standards, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohoken, PA, 1996.
45. Houseman, T.H.: Studies of cigarette smoke transfer using radioisotopically labelled tobacco constituents. Part II: The transference of radioisotopically labelled nicotine to cigarette smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1973) 142–147.
46. Stevens, N.A. and M.F. Borgerding: GC-AED studies of nicotine fate in a burning cigarette; Anal. Chem. 71 (1999) 2179–2185.
47. U.K. Department of Health (2001): Determination of the fate of nicotine when a cigarette is smoked, LGC Report FN40/M4/01; Smoking Policy Unit, U.K. Department of Health, http://www.advisorybodies.doh.gov.uk/scoth/technicaladvisorygroup/nicotfate.pdf, accessed on 5 January 2006.
48. Curran, J.G. Jr. and E.G. Miller Jr.: Factors influencing the elution of high-boiling components of cigarette smoke from filters; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 5 (1969) 64–70.
49. Grob, K.: Gas chromatography of cigarette smoke, part III. Separation of the overlap of gas and particulate phase by capillary columns; J. Gas Chromatog. (1965) 52–56.
50. Ceschini, P. and D. Cham: Effect of sampling conditions on the composition of the volatile phase of cigarette smoke; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 7 (1974) 294–301.
51. Keith, C.H. and J.R. Misenheimer: Vapor filtration by fibrous cigarette filters; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 3 (1966) 583–589.
52. Cochran, E.W., M.J. Joseph, S.L. Stinson, and S.S. Summers: Application of a diffusion-denuder method for the investigation of the effects of “Smoke pH” on vapor-phase nicotine yields from different types of cigarettes; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 20 (2003) 365–372.
53. Frost, B.E., D.C. Mariner, and N.M. Sinclair: Factors relating to nicotine physio-chemistry and retention in human smokers, 1998 CORESTA Congress, Brighton, England, pp. 211-218.
54. Lewis, D.A., I. Colbeck, and D.C. Mariner: Diffusion denuder method for sampling vapor-phase nicotine in mainstream tobacco smoke; Anal. Chem. 66 (1994) 3525–3527.
55. Lewis, D.A., I. Colbeck, and D.C. Mariner: Diffusion of mainstream tobacco smoke and its effects upon the evaporation and diffusion of nicotine; J. Aerosol Sci. 26 (1995) 841–846.
56. Schmeltz, I., A. Wenger, D. Hoffmann, and T.C. Tso: Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. 63. On the fate of nicotine during pyrolysis and in a burning cigarette; J. Agric. Food Chem. 27 (1979) 602–608.
57. Watson, C.H., J. McCraw, G. Polzin, D.L. Ashley, and D. Barr: Development of a method to assess cigarette smoke intake; Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 (2004) 248–253.