Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

Open access


The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM), ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Borgerding M.F. J.A. Bodnar D.E. Wingate: The 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study – the Final Report. Conducted for the Massachusetts Department of Public Health by the Tobacco Industry; Boston MA Massachusetts Department of Public Health 2000.

  • 2. Bumb R.R. W.B. Crummet S.S. Cutie J.R. Gledhill R.H. Hummel R.O. Kagel L.L. Lamparski E.V. Luoma D.L. Miller T.J. Nestrick L.A. Shadoff R.H. Stehl and J.S. Woods: Trace chemistries of fire: A source of chlorinated dioxins; Science 210 (1980) 385–390.

  • 3. Crummet W.B.: Environmental chlorinated dioxins from combustion – The trace chemistries of fire hypothesis; in: Chlorinated dioxins and related compounds edited by O. Hutzinger R.W. Frei E. Merian and F. Pocchiari Per-gamon Press New York NY 1982 pp. 253–264.

  • 4. Muto H. and Y. Takizawa: Dioxins in cigarette smoke; Arch. Environ. Health 44 (1989) 171–174.

  • 5. Ball M. O. Päpke and A. Lis: Polychlordibenzodioxine und Polychlordibenzofurane in Cigarettenrauch [Poly-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in ciga-rette smoke]; Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 14 (1990) 393–402.

  • 6. Löfroth G. and Y. Zebühr: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in main-stream and sidestream cigarette smoke; Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 48 (1992) 789–794.

  • 7. van Leeuwen F.X.R. and M.M. Younes (Editors): Assessment of the health risk of dioxins: Re-evaluation of the tolerable daily intake (TDI); Food Addit. Contam. 17 2000.

  • 8. World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA): Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: polychlorinated dibenzodioxins polychlorinated dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls; Food Addit. Series 48 2002.

  • 9. Van den Berg M. L. Birnbaum A.T.C. Bosveld B. Brunström P. Cook M. Feeley J.P. Giesy A. Hanberg R. Hasegawa S.W. Kennedy T. Kubiak J.C. Larsen F.X.R. van Leeuwen A.K.D. Liem C. Nolt R.E. Peterson L. Poellinger S. Safe D. Schrenk D. Tillitt M. Tysklind M. Younes F. Wærn and T. Zacharewski: Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs PCDDs PCDFs for humans and wildlife; Environ. Health Per-spect. 106 (1998) 775–792.

  • 10. Matsueda T. Y. Kurokawa M. Nakamura S. Takada and K. Fukamchi: Concentrations of PCDDs PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in cigarettes from various countries; Organohalogen Compounds 20 (1994) 331–334.

  • 11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Second national report on human exposure to environ-mental chemicals Atlanta GA CDC 2002.

  • 12. Fowles J. and E. Dybing: Application of toxicological risk assessment principles to the chemical constituents of cigarette smoke; Tobacco Control 12 (2003) 424–430.

  • 13. Fowles J.: Chemical composition of tobacco and ciga-rette smoke in two brands of New Zealand cigarettes Final report (revised 25 August 2003); http://ndp.govt.nz/tobacco/ChemicalComposition Ciga-rettes.pdf.

  • 14. Chepiga T.A. M.J. Morton P.A. Murphy J.T. Avalos B.R. Bombick D.J. Doolittle M.F. Borgerding and J.E. Swauger: A comparison of the mainstream smoke chemistry and mutagenicity of a representative sample of the US cigarette market with two Kentucky reference cigarettes (K1R4F and K1R5F); Food Chem. Toxicol. 38 (2000) 949–962.

  • 15. ISO 3402: Tobacco and tobacco products – Atmosphere for conditioning and testing; Reference number ISO 3402:1991(E) International Organization for Standard-ization Geneva Switzerland 1991.

  • 16. ISO 3308: Routine analytical cigarette smoking machine – Definitions and standard conditions; Reference number ISO 3308:1991 (E) International Organization for Standardization Geneva Switzerland 1991.

  • 17. Smith C.J. G.L. Dooly and S.C. Moldoveanu: A new technique using solid phase extraction (SPE) for the analysis of aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke; J. Chromatogr. A. 991 (2003) 99-107.

  • 18. Zha Q. N.X. Qian and S.C. Moldoveanu: Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate phase of cigarette smoke using a gas chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric technique; J. Chromatogr. Sci. 40 (2002) 403-408.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.69

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.295
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.491

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 239 116 1
PDF Downloads 94 61 1