Some Studies of the Effects of Additives on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties. I. Flavorants

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Abstract

Examination of extensive laboratory data collected during the past four decades, particularly considerable unpublished data generated between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, indicates that none of the materials used as flavorants on smoking tobacco products, particularly cigarettes marketed by a US manufacturer, imparts any significant adverse chemical or biological properties to the mainstream smoke (MSS) from flavorant-treated tobacco, a conclusion reached by Doull et al. (1) in their assessment of available information on nearly 600 ingredients variously used as cigarette tobacco additives in the US Tobacco Industry. In a more recent detailed assessment of the chemical and biological properties reported in the published literature for the MSS from cigarettes fabricated with tobacco with or without one or more additives, Paschke et al. (2) reached a similar conclusion; namely, that in general, no significant increase in the biological activity (carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and cytotoxicity) of tobacco was reported from cigarettes containing added ingredients. Many flavorful tobacco additives listed by Doull et al. are structurally identical with or similar to highly polar, volatile components identified in the aqueous alcohol-soluble portion of cigarette MSS and tobacco. In the late 1950s, nearly two decades before the precise nature of the aqueous alcohol-soluble components of tobacco was defined, it was determined that their addition to cigarette tobacco produced no significant increase in the cigarette MSS of either the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content or the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) content, MSS components of considerable interest at that time.

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98. Best, F.W. and D.C. Friende: The fate of glycerol applied to cigarette wrappers measured during puff and smolder periods; R&DM, 1988, No. 25, January 15 (INT-510168054, pp. 1-2).

99. Best, F.W. and T.S. Sink: Fate of 14C-labeled leaf alcohol in total smoke from Winston KS cigarettes; R&DM, 1988, No. 59, February 11 (INT-507038333, pp. 1-15).

100. Eble, A.S.: Migration and delivery of levulinic acid in cigarettes; R&DM, 1987, No. 167, November 2 (INT-506489046, pp. 1-7).

101. Best, F.W.: Radiotracer studies to determine the fate of levulinic acid in filtered cigarettes, its distribution in total smoke, its intact level in MS TPM, SS TPM, and filters, and its migration within cigarettes upon aging; MDR, 1991, No. 3, May 25 (INT-507955442, pp. 1-23).

102. Best, F.W. and T.S. Sink: Fate of 14C-labeled linalool in total smoke from Winston KS cigarettes; R&DM, 1989, No. 3, January 4 (INT-508280556, pp. 1-7).

103. Newell, M.P. and F.W. Best: Isotopic fate studies with tobacco constituents. II. Carboxylic acids. B. L-Malic acid; RDM, 1966, No. 48, August 30 (INT-500603881, pp. 1-10); The fate of oxalic, malic, and citric acids in the smoke of cigarettes; 22nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 22, Paper No. 25, 1968, p. 19.

104. Best, F.W.: Effects of some cigarette construction parameters on menthol migration and transfer; Rec. Adv. Tob. Sci. 19 (1993) 155-201. (INT-510274458, pp. 1-63).

105. Eble, A.S. and T.S. Sink: Migration and delivery of menthol in aging cigarettes; R&DM, 1987, No. 152, October 14 (INT-506488487, pp. 1-18).

106. Eble, A.S., F.W. Best, and CC. Morrison: Delivery and elution of menthol from cigarettes; R&DM, 1987, No. 153, October 14 (INT-506488505, pp. 1-10).

107. Newell, M.P.: The fate of flavorants of tobacco during smoking. IV (C). Menthol; RDM, 1966, No. 21, May 20 (INT-500603655, pp. 1-10).

108. Newell, M.P. and P.H. Latimer Jr: The fate of flavorants of tobacco during smoking. IV. (A). Menthol; RDR, 1963, No. 52, September 6 (INT-500962050, pp. 1-12); Effect of a charcoal filter on the transfer of menthol to mainstream smoke; RDM, 1963, No. 66, September 16 (INT-500612731, pp. 1-3).

109. Newell, M.P., P.H. Latimer Jr, and L.R. Haefele: The fate of menthol in cigarette smoke; 22nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 22, Paper No. 24, 1968, p. 18; Newell, M.P., P.H. Latimer Jr, and H.E. Moser: The fate of flavorants of tobacco during smoking. IV. (B). Menthol content of mainstream smoke versus number of puffs; RDR, 1964, No. 4, January 9 (INT-500963280, pp. 1-14).

110. Best, F.W.: Comparison of nicotine transfer to smoke from free base and salt addition with cigarettes containing radiolabeled dl-nicotine and dl-nicotine levulinate; MDR, 1991, No. 4, June 3 (INT-508725339, pp. 1–8).

111. Best, F.W.: Radiotracer fate studies with 14C-nicotine in total smoke of REST process materials including transfer efficiencies to MS TPM from products with differing nicotine levels and differing air dilution levels; R&DM, 1990, No. 201, September 14 (INT-512323835, pp. 1–35).

112. Schmeltz, I., A. Wenger, D. Hoffmann, and T.C. Tso: Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. 63. On the fate of nicotine during pyrolysis and in a burning cigaret-te; J. Agr. Food Chem. 27 (1979) 602–608.

113. Newell, M.P. and F.W. Best: Isotopic fate studies with tobacco constituents. II. Carboxylic acids. A. Oxalic acid; RDM, 1965, No. 67, September 14 (INT-500603308, pp. 1–8); The fate of oxalic, malic, and citric acids in the smoke of cigarettes; 22nd Tobacco Chemists’ Research Conference, Program Booklet and Abstracts, Vol. 22, Paper No. 25, 1968, pp. 19.

114. Morrison, C.C., F.W. Best, and C.R. Green: A comparison of paper streaking and tobacco rod injection methods for phenylacetic acid addition to cigarettes; R&DM, 1986, No. 42, April 11 (INT-504925399, pp. 1–10).

115. Morrison, C.C., F.W. Best, and C.R. Green: The distribution of radioactivity from PD00065A cigaret-tes injected one-half their length with 14C-phenyl-acetic acid; R&DM, 1986, No. 43, April 11 (INT-504925409, pp. 1–11).

116. Newell, M.P.: Determination of constituents of tobacco by isotope dilution. III. Phenylacetic acid; RDR, 1963, No. 7, February 1 (INT-500961132, pp. 1–16); The fate of flavorants of tobacco during smoking. III. Phenylacetic acid; RDR, 1963, No. 32, April 17 (INT-500961546, pp. 1–14).

117. Best, F.W. and T.S. Sink: Fate of 14C-labeled phen-ethyl isovalerate in total smoke from Winston KS cigarettes; R&DM, 1989, No. 69, March 20 (INT-508281917, pp. 1–29).

118. Best, F.W., T.S. Sink, J.W. Gee, and D.C. Friende: The fate of propylene glycol in total smoke with standard and human mimic puffing parameters; R&DM, 1987, No. 213, December 21 (INT-506489759, pp. 1–10).

119. Newell, M.P.: The fate of flavorants of tobacco during smoking. I. Sclareolide; RDR, 1962, No. 37, November 2 (INT-500939638, pp. 1-19); Addendum to the report on fate of flavorants of tobacco during smoking. I. Sclareolide; RDM, 1963, No. 67, Septem-ber 16 (INT-500612734, pp. 1-2).

120. Best, F.W., C.C. Morrison, and C.R. Green: Transfer of vanillin-14C from Bright filters to cigarette smoke; R&DM, 1983, No. 62, November 9 (INT-501662061, pp. 1–8).

121. Best, F.W., C.C. Morrison, and C.R. Green: In-vestigation of paper streaking and rod injection methods for vanillin addition to cigarettes; R&DM, 1984, No. 21, March 29 (INT-505109088, pp. 1–13).

122. Best, F.W., C.C. Morrison, and A.S. Eble: Use of cold traps in total recovery smoking system to de-termine if Cambridge filters trap all smoke vanillin in mainstream and sidestream; R&DM, 1984, No. 23, April 12 (INT-505109101, pp. 1–3).

123. Morrison, C.C. and F.W. Best: The distribution of radioactivity in the smoke from L-19112-C cigarettes injected one-half their rod length with 14C-vanillin; R&DM, 1984, No. 20, March 26 (INT-505109079, pp. 1–9).

124. Carmines, E.L.: Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 1: Cigarette design, testing approach, and review of results; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 77–91.

125. Rustemeier, K., R. Stabbert, H.J. Haussmann, E. Roemer, and E.L. Carrnines: Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 2: Chemical composition of mainstream smoke; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 93–104.

126. Roemer, E., F.J. Tewes, T.J. Meisgen, D.J. Veltel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 3: In vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 105–111.

127. Vanscheeuwijck, P.M., A. Teredesai, P.M. Terpstra, J. Verbeeck, P. Kuhl, B. Gerstenberg, S. Gebel, and E.L. Carmines: Evaluation of the potential effects of ingredients added to cigarettes. Part 4: Subchronic inhalation studies; Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 113–131.

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