Kim’s CATs framework (2016) identified creative climates (C), attitudes (A) and thinking (T) skills for innovation. Creativity can be measured by testing and non-testing methods. Testing methods include creativity tests for climate, attitude and thinking skills. Among the creativity tests available, two versions of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking - Figural and Verbal (TTCT-F and V) are most commonly used. I examined the relationships between the two versions as well as their reliability across gender. From preschool children to adults, 994 participants’ scores on the two versions were used. The results showed that scores on the two versions are significantly related, yet TTCT-F is a more comprehensive, reliable and valid measure of creativity than the TTCT-V.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Baer J. (2009 August). Are the Torrance Tests Still Relevant in the 21st Century? The Division 10 Debate. Paper presented at the 117th Convention of the American Psychological Association Toronto Canada August 6 - 10 2009.
Baer J. (2011). How divergent thinking tests mislead us: Are the Torrance tests still relevant in the 21st century? The Division 10 Debate. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts 5 309-313.
Bender S. W. Nibbelink BL. Towner-Thyrum E. & Vredenburg D. (2013) Defining characteristics of creative women. Creativity Research Journal 25 38-47.
Charyton C. Elliott J. O. Rahman M. A. Woodard J. L. & DeDios S. (2011). Gender and science: Women Nobel Laureates. Journal of Creative Behavior 45 203-214.
Cheng Y-L. Kim K. H. & Hull M. F. (2010). Comparisons of creative styles and personality types between American and Taiwanese college student and the relationship between creative potential and personality types. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts 4 103-112.
Clapham M. M. (2004). The convergent validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and Creativity Interest Inventories. Educational and Psychological Measurement 64 828-841.
Cogérino N. G. Bois J. & Amorose A. J. (2006). Students’ perceptions of teacher feedback and physical competence in physical education classes: Gender effects. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 25 36-57.
Cramond B. (1993). The Torrance tests of creative thinking: From design through establishment of predictive validity. In R. F. Subotnik & K. D. Arnold (Eds.) Beyond Terman: Contemporary longitudinal studies of giftedness and talent (pp. 229-254). Norwood NJ: Ablex.
Crammond B. Matthews-Morgan J. Bandalos D. & Zuo L. (2005). A report on the 40- year follow-up of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Gifted Child Quarterly 49 283-291.
Da Costa S. Páez D. Sánchez F. Garaigordobil M. & Gondim S. (2015). Personal factors of creativity: A second order meta-analysis. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 31 165-173.
Karwowski M. & Lebuda I. (2016). The big five the huge two and creative self-beliefs: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts 10 214-232.
Kim K. H. (2005). Can only intelligent people be creative? A meta-analysis. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education 16 57-66.
Kim K. H. (2006a). Can we trust creativity tests? A review of The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Creativity Research Journal 18 3-14.
Kim K. H. (2006b). Is creativity unidimensional or multidimensional? Analyses of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal 18 251-259.
Kim K. H. (2007). The two Torrance creativity tests: The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement. In T. Ai-Girl (Ed.) Creativity: A handbook for teachers (pp. 117-141). Hackensack NJ: World Scientific.
Kim K. H. (2008a). Commentary: The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking already overcome many of the perceived weaknesses that Silvia et al.’s (2008) methods are intended to correct. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts 2 97-99.
Kim K. H. (2008b). Meta-analyses of the relationship of creative achievement to both IQ and divergent thinking test scores. Journal of Creative Behavior 42 106-130.
Kim K. H. (2009). Developing creativity in gifted and talented Students. In B. MacFarlane & T. Stambaugh (Eds.) Leading change in gifted education: The festschrift of Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska (pp. 37-48) Waco TX: Prufrock.
Kim K. H. (2011a). Proven reliability and validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts 5 314-315.
Kim K. H. (2011b). The APA 2009 Division 10 debate: Are the Torrance tests still relevant in the 21st century? Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts. 5 302-308.
Kim K. H. (2011c). The creativity crisis: The decrease in creative thinking scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal 23 285-295.
Kim K. H. (2016). The creativity challenge: How we can recapture American innovation. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.
Kim K. H. Cramond B. & Bandalos D. L. (2006). The latent structure and measurement invariance of scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural Educational and Psychological Measurement 66 459-477.
Kim K. H. Lee H. Chae K. Andersen L. & Lawrence C. (2011). Creativity and Confucianism among American and Korean educators. Creativity Research Journal 23 357-371.
Lee H. & Kim K. H. (2011). Is speaking more language to be more creative? Relationship between bilingualism and creativity with multicultural link. Personality and Individual Differences 50 1186-1190.
Li W. Li X. Huang L. Kong X. Yang W. Wei D. Liu J. (2015). Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 10 191-198.
Ma H.-H. (2009). The effect size of variables associated with creativity: A meta-analysis. Creativity Research Journal 21 30-42.
Plucker J. A. & Renzulli J. S. (1999). Psychometric approaches to the study of human creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.) Handbook of creativity (pp. 35-61). New York NY: Cambridge University Press.
Razumnikova O. M. (2002). Role sex and professional orientation of students as creativity factors. Voprosy Psikhologii 1 111-125.
Razumnikova O. M. Volf N. & Tarasova I. (2009). Strategy and results: Sex differences in electrographic correlates of verbal and figural creativity. Human Physiology 35 285-294.
Stoltzfus G. Nibbelink BL. Vredenburg D. & Thyrum E. (2011). Gender gender role and creativity. Social Behavior and Personality 39 425-432.
Torrance E. P. (1971). Are the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking biased against or in favor of “disadvantaged” groups? Gifted Child Quarterly 15 75-80.
Torrance E. P. (1977). Discovery and nurturance of giftedness in the culturally different. Reston VA: Council on Exceptional Children.
Torrance E. P. (2000). Research review for the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Figural and Verbal forms A and B. Bensenville IL: Scholastic Testing Services.
Torrance E. P. & Aliotti N.C. (1969). Sex differences in levels of performance and testretest reliability on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking ability. Journal of Creative Behavior 3 52-57.
Torrance E. P. & Torrance J. P. (1972). Combining creative problem-solving with creative expressive activities in the education of disadvantaged young people. Journal of Creative Behavior 6 1-10.
Ulger K. (2015) The structure of creative thinking: Visual and verbal areas. Creativity Research Journal 27 102-106.
Vincent A. S. Decker B. P. & Mumford M. D. (2002). Divergent thinking intelligence and expertise: A test of alternative models" Creativity Research Journal 14 163-178.