The aim of the present study was to research teachers’ beliefs about creativity and possibilities for its development in Polish high schools. The study consisted of in-depth interviews. It was conducted with a group of 15 high school teachers, all of whom taught the key subjects (math, Polish and foreign languages) for the final school-leaving examination. The qualitative thematic analysis applied to the collected data revealed eight themes. Each of them concerned the teachers’ understanding of what creativity really is, their attitude towards students’ creative activity at school, aims that they formulated to stimulate their creativity, as well as the role and place of students’ creative activity at school. In addition, the themes referred to actions that had been taken by the teachers to stimulate their students’ creativity and factors that inhibited or stimulated the development of students’ creativity at school. The teachers, who were the subject of the analysis, understood creativity as creative potential, that is, the ability to think independently, to give new and original solutions to all sorts of tasks and problems, as well as creative activity oriented towards everyday innovation. Additionally, the study revealed that there exists a creativity gap between verbal support for developing students’ creativity at school and classroom practice.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aljughaiman A. & Mowrer-Reynolds E. (2005). Teachers’ conceptions of creativity and creative students. The Journal of Creative Behavior39 17-34.
Amabile T. M. (1996). Creativity in context. Boulder Co: Westvie Pres Inc.
Andiliou A. & Murphy P. K. (2010). Examining variations among researchers’ and teachers’ conceptualizations of creativity: A review and synthesis of contemporary research. Educational Research Review5 201-219.
Bandura A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Barbot B. Besançon M. Lubart T. (2015). Creative potential in educational settings: Its nature measure and nurture. Education 3-1343 371-381.
Beghetto R. A. (2007). Ideational code-switching: Walking the talk about supporting student creativity in the classroom. Roeper Review29 265-270.
Beghetto R. A. & Plucker J. A. (2006). The relationship among schooling learning and creativity: “All roads lead to creativity” or “You can’t get there from here” (pp. 316-332). In J. Kaufman & J. Baer (Eds.) Creativity and reason in cognitive development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Braun V. & Clarke V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology3 77-101.
Burgess L. & Addison N. (2007). Conditions for learning: Partnerships for engaging secondary pupils with contemporary art. International Journal of Art & Design Education26 185-198.
Burnard P. (2008). Creativity and performativity: Counterpoints in British and Australian education. British Educational Research Journal34 667-682.
Burnard P. Craft A. & Cremin T. (2006). Documenting ‘possibility thinking’: A journey of collaborative enquiry. International Journal of Early Years Education14 243-262.
Chan D. W. & Chan L. (1999). Implicit theories of creativity: Teachers’ perception of students characteristics in Hong-Kong. Creativity Research Journal12 185-195.
Cheung W. M. Tse S. K. & Tsang H. W. (2003). Teaching creative writing skills to primary school children in Hong Kong: Discordance between the views and practices of language teachers. Journal of Creative Behavior37(2) 77-97.
Csikszentmihalyi M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Collins.
Craft A. (2003). The limits to creativity in education: Dilemmas for the educator. British Journal of Educational Studies51 113-127.
Cremin T. P. Burnard & A. Craft. (2006). Pedagogy and possibility thinking in the early years. Thinking Skills and Creativity1 108-119.
Cropley A.J. (1992). More ways than one: Fostering creativity in the classroom. Norwood: Ablex.
Cropley A. J. (1999). Definitions of creativity. In M. A. Runco S. R. Pritzker (Eds.). Encyclopedia of creativity. Volume 1 (pp. 511-524). San Diego: Academic Press.
Cropley A. J. (2010). Creativity in the classroom: The dark side. In D. H. Cropley A. J. Cropley J. C. Kaufman & M. A. Runco (Eds.). The dark side of creativity (pp. 297-315). Cambridge: University Press.
Cumming R. (2007). Language play in the classroom: Encouraging children’s intuitive creativity with words through poetry. Literacy41(2) 93-101.
Dawson V. L. Andrea T. Affinito R. & Westby E. L. (1999). Predicting creative behavior: A reexamination of the divergence between traditional and teacher-defined concepts of creativity. Creativity Research Journal12 57-66.
Davies D. D. Jindal-Snape C. Collier R. Digby P. Hay & A. Howe. (2013). Creative learning environments in education - A systematic literature review. Thinking Skills and Creativity8 80-91.
Diakidoy I. N. & Kanari E. (1999). Student teachers’ beliefs about creativity. British Educational Research Journal25 225-244.
Eckhoff A. (2011). Creativity in the early childhood classroom: Perspectives of preservice teachers. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education32 240-255.
Fasko D. (2000-2001). Education and creativity. Creativity Research Journal13 317-327.
Fleith D. de Suoza (2000). Teacher and student perceptions of creativity in the classroom environment. Roeper Review22(3) 148-153.
Fryer M. & Collings J. A. (1991). British teachers’ views of creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior25(1) 75-81.
Gajda A. Karwowski M. Beghetto R. A. (2016). Creativity and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000133
Glăveanu V. P. (2010). Paradigms in the study of creativity: Introducing the perspective of cultural psychology. New Ideas in Psychology28(1) 79-93.
Glăveanu V. P. (2011). Children and creativity: A most (un)likely pair? Thinking Skills and Creativity6 122-131.
Glăveanu V. P. (2014). The psychology of creativity: A critical reading. Creativity. Theories ‒ Research ‒ Applications1(1) 10-32.
Gralewski J. Karwowski M. (2013). Polite girls and creative boys? Students’ gender moderates accuracy of teachers’ ratings of creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior47 290-304.
Gralewski J. Karwowski M. (in press). Are teachers’ implicit theories of creativity related to the recognition of their students’ creativity? The Journal of Creative Behavior Vol. 0 Iss. 0 pp. 1-17 Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1002/jocb.140
Guilford J. P. (1967). The Nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Jankowska D. M. & Karwowski M. (2015). Measuring creative imagery abilities. Frontiers in Psychology6 1591 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01591.
Kampylis P. Berki E. & Saariluoma P. (2009). In-service and prospective teachers’ conceptions of creativity. Thinking Skills and Creativity4 15-29.
Karwowski M. (2012). Did curiosity kill the cat? Relationship between trait curiosity creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity. Europe’s Journal of Psychology8 547-558.
Karwowski M. (2015). Development of the Creative Self-Concept. Creativity. Theories ‒ Research ‒ Applications2(2) 166-180.
Karwowski M. Gralewski J. Lebuda I. & Wiśniewska E. (2007). Creative teaching of creativity teachers: Polish perspective. Thinking Skills and Creativity2 57-61.
Karwowski M. Barbot B. (2016). Creative self-beliefs: Their nature development and correlates (pp. 302-326). In J. C. Kaufman & J. Baer (Eds.) Creativity and Reason in Cognitive Development (2nd Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Karwowski M. & Lebuda I. (2015). Big Five Huge Two and creative self-beliefs: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts10 214-232.
Karwowski M. Lebuda I. Wisniewska E & Gralewski J. (2013). Big Five personality factors as the predictors of creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity: Does gender matter? Journal of Creative Behavior47 215-232.
Kaufman J.C. & Beghetto R.A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The Four C Model of Creativity. Review of General Psychology13 1-12.
Kharkhurin A. V. (2014). Creativity.4in1: Four-criterion construct of creativity. Creativity Research Journal26 338-352.
Lee E. A. & Seo H. A. (2006). Understanding of creativity by Korean elementary teachers in gifted education. Creativity Research Journal 18 237-242.
Levenson E. (2015). Exploring Ava’s developing sense for tasks that may occasion mathematical creativity. Journal of Math Teacher Education18 1-25.
Liu S. & Lin H. (2014). Primary teachers beliefs about scientific creativity in the classroom context. International Journal of Science Education36 1551-1567.
Makel M. C. (2009). Help us creativity researchers you’re our only hope. Psychology of Aesthetics Creativity and the Arts3 38-42.
Maksić S. Pavlović J. (2011). Educational researchers’ personal explicit theories on creativity and its development: A qualitative study. High Ability Studies22(2) 219-231.
Montgomery D. Bull K. S. & Baloche L. (1993). Characteristics of the creative person. American Behavioral Scientist 37 68-78.
Newton L. & Beverton S. (2012). Pre-service teachers’ conceptions of creativity in elementary school English. Thinking Skills and Creativity7 165-176.
Nęcka E. (1999). Proces twórczy i jego ograniczenia [The creative process and its limitations]. Kraków: Oficyna Wydawnicza Impuls.
Park S. Lee S. Oliver J. S. & Cramond B. (2006). Changes in Korean science teachers’ perceptions of creativity and science teaching after participating in an overseas professional development program. Journal of Science Teacher Education17 37-64.
Pearlman C. (1983). Teachers as an informational resource in identifying and rating student creativity. Education103 215-222.
Perkins D. N. (1981). The Minds Best Work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Plucker J. A. (1999). Is the proof in the pudding? Reanalyses of Torrance’s (1958 to present) longitudinal data. Creativity Research Journal12 103-114.
Plucker J. A. Beghetto R. A. & Dow G. T. (2004). Why isn’t creativity more important to educational psychologists? Potentials pitfalls and future directions in creativity research. Educational Psychologist39(2) 83-96.
Richards R. (2007). Everyday creativity: Our hidden potential. In R. Richards (Eds.) Everyday creativity and new views of human nature (pp. 25-54). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Rubenstein L. D. McCoach D. B. & Siegle D. (2013). Teaching for creativity scales: An instrument to examine teachers’ perceptions of factors that allow for the teaching of creativity. Creativity Research Journal25 324-334.
Runco M. A. (2003). Education for creative potential. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research47 317-324.
Runco M. A. (2004). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology55 657-687.
Runco M. A. (2009). Creativity definition. In: B. Kerr (Eds.) Encyclopedia of giftedness creativity and talent. Volume 1 (pp. 200-202). Los Angeles: Sage Reference Publication.
Runco M. A. & Jaeger G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal24 92-96.
Runco M. A. Johnson D. J. & Bear P. K. (1993). Parents’ and teachers’ implicit theories of chidren’s creativity. Child Study Journal23(2) 91-113.
Sak U. (2004). About creativity giftedness and teaching the creatively gifted in the classroom. Roeper Review26 216-222.
Simonton D. K. (2012). Taking the U.S. Patent Office criteria seriously: A quantitative three-criterion creativity definition and its implications. Creativity Research Journal24 97-106.
Skiba T. Tan M. Sternberg R. A. & Grigorenko E. L. (2010). Roads not taken new roads to take. In R. A. Beghetto & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.). Nurturing creativity in the classroom (pp. 252-269). New York NY: Cambridge University Press.
Sommer U. Fink A. & Neubauer A. (2008). Detection of high ability children by teachers and parents: Psychometric quality of new rating checklists for the assessment of intellectual creative and social ability. Psychology Science Quarterly50 189-205.
Urhahne D. (2011). Teachers’ judgments of elementary students’ ability creativity and task commitment. Talent Development & Excellence3 229-237.
Westby E. L. & Dawson V. L. (1995). Creativity: Asset or burden in the classroom? Creativity Research Journal8 1-10.
Wood R. & Ashfield J. (2008). The use of the interactive whiteboard for creative teaching and learning in literacy and mathematics: A case study. British Journal of Educational Technology39 84-96.
European Parliament and Council Decision 1350 § 1-9 (2008).