Introduction: In the 21st century there is an increased prevalence of depression in the world. So far the mechanism of developing depression has not been exactly known. Risk factors of depression occurrence are complex and nowadays it has been emphasized that air pollution can affect the intensity of depressive symptoms.
Objective: The analysis of the scientific works investigating the correlations between air pollution and depression.
Material and method: The material consisted of the studies published between 2007 and 2017. A systematic review of Medline database (using PubMed search engine) was conducted by typing the English phrase (air pollution) and (depression), and 154 results were obtained. Those results which concerned nicotine addiction or dementia diseases were rejected. The inclusion criterion was the number of people tested, n>500 in case of adults, and n>200 in case of children (a small number of publications). All in all, 9 research in the population of adults and 1 research in the group of children were included to the final analysis. In the discussion part of this work some research carried out on animals and related to the subject matter of own analyses were also investigated.
Results: As many as 8 out of 10 analyzed research demonstrated statistically significant correlation between long-term exposure to air pollution (mainly to fine particulate matter, PM) and depression. This correlation mainly concerned intensification of depressive symptoms during long exposure to air pollution. The exposure also resulted in changes in the neuro-transfer of serotonin and as well in neurodegenerative changes in children exposed to long-term pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in prenatal life. Testing on animals indicates that air pollution affects the activation of proinflammatory processes in hippocampus, what may incidentally contribute to the formation of depressive and cognitive symptoms.
Conclusions: In view of the increase of depression incidence and constantly sustained air pollution in the world, there is a need for further research on the correlation between air pollution and depression, taking into account the genetic, social and psychological factors.
4. Nestler E.J., Barrot M., DiLeone R.J., Eisch A.J., Gold S.J., Monteggia L.M. Neurobiology of depression. Neuron. 2002; 34(1):13-25.
5. Lehmann L. P., Hubbard J. R., Martin P. R. Substance abuse and depression. Substance abuse in the mentally and physically disabled, 2001: 33-58.
6. Tsuno N, Besset A., Ritchie K. Sleep and depression. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 2005; 66(10): 1254-1269.
7. Bonnet F., Irving K., Terra J.L., Nony P., Berthezène F., Moulin P. Anxiety and depression are associated with unhealthy lifestyle in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis 2005; 178(2): 339-344.
8. CamachoT. C., Roberts R. E., Lazarus N. B., Kaplan G. A., Cohen, R. D. Physical activity and depression: evidence from the Alameda County Study. American journal of epidemiology, 1991; 134(2): 220-231.
9. Ströhle, A. Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders. Journal of neural transmission, 2009; 116(6): 777-784.
10. Wood A. M., Joseph S. The absence of positive psychological (eudemonic) well-being as a risk factor for depression: A ten year cohort study. Journal of affective disorders, 2010; 122(3): 213-217.
11. Sowislo, J. F., Orth, U. Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies, 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028931 [cytowana 16.02.2017].
12. Constantino R. E., Sekula L. K., Rabin B., Stone C. Negative life experiences negative life experiences, depression, and immune function in abused and nonabused women. Biological research for nursing, 2000; 1(3): 190-198.
13. Everson S. A., Maty S. C., Lynch J. W., Kaplan G. A. Epidemiologic evidence for the relation between socioeconomic status and depression, obesity, and diabetes. Journal of psychosomatic research, 2002; 53(4), 891-895.
14. Thabet A. A. M., Abed Y., Vostanis P. Comorbidity of PTSD and depression among refugee children during war conflict. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2004; 45(3), 533-542.
15. Friedmann, E., Thomas, S. A., Liu, F., Morton, P. G., Chapa, D., Gottlieb, S. S., & Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT) Investigators. Relationship of depression, anxiety, and social isolation to chronic heart failure outpatient mortality. American Heart Journal, 2006; 152(5): 940.
16. Thienkrua W., Cardozo B. L., Chakkraband M. S., Guadamuz T. E., Pengjuntr W., Tantipiwatanaskul P. et al. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among children in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand. Jama 2006; 296(5): 549-559.
17. Kendler K. S., Hettema J. M., Butera F., Gardner C.O., Prescott C. A. Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2003; 60(8), 789-796.
18. Calderón-Garcidueñas L., Calderón-Garcidueñas A., Torres-Jardón R., Avila-Ramírez J., Kulesza R.J., Angiulli A.D. Air pollution and your brain: what do you need to know right now. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2015; 16(4):329-45.
19. Vrijheid M. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature. Environmental health perspectives, 2000; 108(1): 101.
20. Van Kamp I., Davies, H. Environmental noise and mental health: Five year review and future directions. In Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, 2008.
21. Lim, Y.H., Kim, H., Kim, J. H., Bae, S., Park, H. Y., Hong, Y.-C. Air Pollution and Symptoms of Depression in Elderly Adults. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012; 120(7): 1023–1028.
22. Daly A., Zannetti, P. An introduction to air pollution–definitions, classifications, and history. Ambient air pollution. P. Zannetti, D. Al-Ajmi and S. Al-Rashied, The Arab School for Science and Technology and The Enviro Comp Institute, 2007; 1-14.
23. Juda-Rezler K., Manczarski P. Zagrożenia związane z zanieczyszczeniem powietrza atmosferycznego i gospodarką odpadami komunalnymi, Nauka, 2010; 4: 97-106.
24. Black, J. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952. Archives of disease in childhood, 2003; 88(12): 1040-1042.
27. Thomson E.M., Pal S., Guénette J., Wade M.G., Atlas E., Holloway A.C, Williams A, et al. Ozone Inhalation Provokes Glucocorticoid-Dependent and - Independent Effects on Inflammatory and Metabolic Pathways. Toxicol Sci. 2016; 152(1): 17-28.
28. Miller D.B., Ghio A.J., Karoly E.D., Bell L.N., Snow S.J., Madden M.C., Soukup J., Cascio W.E., et al. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016; 193(12): 1382-91.
29. Wang Y., Eliot M. N., Koutrakis P., Gryparis A., Schwartz J.D., Coull B.A., et al. Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study, Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205909
30. Cho J., Choi Y.J., Suh M,. Sohn J., Kim H., Cho S.K., Ha K.H., et al. Air pollution as a risk factor for depressive episode in patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or asthma. J Affect Disord. 2014; 157:45-51.
31. Madrigano J., Baccarelli A., Mittleman M.A., Sparrow D., Spiro A., Vokonas P.S., et al. Air pollution and DNA methylation: interaction by psychological factors in the VA Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012; 176(3): 224-32.
32. Banerjee M., Siddique S., Dutta A., Mukherjee B., Ranjan Ray M. Cooking with biomass increases the risk of depression in pre-menopausal women in India. Soc Sci Med. 2012; 75(3): 565-72.
33. Szyszkowicz M., Tremblay N. Case-crossover design: air pollution and health outcomes. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2011; 24(3): 249-55.
34. Szyszkowicz M. Air pollution and emergency department visits for depression in Edmonton, Canada. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007; 20(3): 241-5.
35. Zijlema W.L., Wolf K., Emeny R., Ladwig K.H., Peters A., Kongsgård H., Hveem K., et al. The association of air pollution and depressed mood in 70,928 individuals from four European cohorts. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016; 219(2):212-9.
36. Kim K.N., Lim Y.H., Bae H.J., Kim M., Jung K., Hong Y.C. Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 2016; 124(10): 1547-1553.
37. Perera, F. P., Wang, S., Rauh, V., Zhou, H., Stigter, L., Camann, D., Majewska, R. Prenatal exposure to air pollution, maternal psychological distress, and child behavior. Pediatrics. 2013; 132(5): 1284–1294.
38. Szyszkowicz M., Rowe B.H., Colman I. Air pollution and daily emergency department visits for depression. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2009; 22(4): 355-62.
39. Szyszkowicz M., Willey J.B., Grafstein E., Rowe B.H., Colman I. Air pollution and emergency department visits for suicide attempts in Vancouver, Canada. Environ Health Insights. 2010; 15(4): 79-86.
40. Kubiak M.S. Wielopierścieniowe węglowodory aromatyczne (WWA) – ich występowanie w środowisku i w żywności. „Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii”. 2013; 94 (1): 31-36.
41. Edwards S.C., Jedrychowski W., Butscher M., Camann D., Kieltyka A., Mroz E., et al. Prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and children's intelligence at 5 years of age in a prospective cohort study in Poland, Environ Health Perspect. 2010;1 18(9): 1326-31.
42. Peterson B. S., Rauh V. A., Bansal R., Hao, X., Toth Z., Nati G., et al. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on the development of brain white matter, cognition, and behavior in later childhood. JAMA Psychiatry, 2015; 2(6): 531-540.
43. Tzivian L., Dlugaj M., Winkler A., Weinmayr G., Hennig F., Fuks K.B., Jöckel K.H. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Environmental health perspectives, 2016; 124(9): 1361-1368.
44. Davis D.A., Bortolato M., Godar S.C., Sander T.K., Iwata N., Pakbin P., et al. Morgan TE. Prenatal exposure tourban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): 64128.
45. Fonken L.K., Xu X., Weil Z.M., Chen G., Sun Q., Rajagopalan S., Nelson R.J. Airpollution impairs cognition, provokes depressive-like behaviors and alters hippocampal cytokine expression and morphology. Mol Psychiatry. 2011; 16(10): 987-95, 973.
46. Sapolsky R.M. Depression, antidepressants, and the shrinking hippocampus, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98(22): 12320–12322.
47. Ufnal M., Wolynczyk-Gmaj D. Mózg i cytokiny – wspólne podłoże depresji, otyłości i chorób układu krążenia? Postepy Hig Med Dosw, 2011; 65: 228-235.
48. Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M., Zahorska-Markiewicz B., Kocełak P., Janowska J., Semik-Grabarczyk E., Wikarek T., Gruszka W., Dąbrowski P. Is Chronic Inflammation a Possible Cause of Obesity-Related Depression? Mediators Inflamm. 2009; 2009: 439107.
50. Latzin P., Frey, U., Armann J., Kieninger, E., Fuchs O., Röösli M., Schaub, B. Exposure to moderate air pollution during late pregnancy and cord blood cytokine secretion in healthy neonates. PloS one, 2011; 6(8): 23130.