Background: According to current knowledge, gamma frequency is closely related to the functioning of neural networks underlying the basic activity of the brain and mind. Disorders in mechanisms synchronizing brain activity observed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are at the roots of neurocognitive disorders and psychopathological symptoms of the disease. Synchronization mechanisms are also related to the structure and functional effectiveness of the white matter. So far, not many analysis has been conducted concerning changes in the image of high frequency in patients with comorbid schizophrenia and white matter damage. The aim of this research was to present specific features of gamma waves in subjects with different psychiatric diagnoses and condition of brain structure.
Methods: Quantitative analysis of an EEG record registered from a patient diagnosed with schizophrenia and comorbid white matter hyperintensities (SCH+WM), a patient with an identical diagnosis but without structural brain changes present in the MRI (SCH-WM) of a healthy control (HC). The range of gamma waves has been obtained by using analogue filters. In order to obtain precise analysis, gamma frequencies have been divided into three bands: 30-50Hz, 50-70Hz, 70-100Hz. Matching Pursuit algorithm has been used for signal analysis enabling assessing the changes in signal energy. Synchronization effectiveness of particular areas of the brain was measured with the aid of coherence value for selected pairs of electrodes.
Results: The electrophysiological signals recorded for the SCH+WM patient showed the highest signal energy level identified for all the analyzed bands compared to the results obtained for the same pairs of electrodes of the other subjects. Coherence results revealed hipercompensation for the SCH+WM patient and her level differed substantially compared to the results of the other subjects.
Conclusions: The coexistence of schizophrenia with white matter damage can significantly disturb parameters of neural activity with high frequencies. The paper discusses possible explanations for the obtained results.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Uhlhaas P. J., Singer W. Neural synchrony in brain disorders: relevance for cognitive dysfunctions and pathophysiology. Neuron, 2006; 52, 155–16810.
2. Jia X, Kohn A. Gamma Rhythms in the Brain. PLoS Biol, 2011; 9(4): e1001045.
3. Başar, E. Brain oscillations in neuropsychiatric disease. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2013; 15(3), 291–300.
4. Cardin JA, Carlén M, Meletis K, Knoblich U, Zhang F, et al. Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses. Nature. 2009; 459:663–67.
5. Hirano Y., Oribe N., Kanba S., Onitsuka T., Nestor, P. G., & Spencer, K. M. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry, 2015; 72(8), 813–821.
6. Messias, E., Chen, C.-Y., & Eaton, W. W. Epidemiology of Schizophrenia: Review of Findings and Myths. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2007; 30(3), 323–338.
7. Jonathan K. Wynn, Gregory A. Light, Bruno Breitmeyer, Keith H. Nuechterlein, and Michael F. Green. Event-Related Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia Patients During a Visual Backward-Masking Task. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2005; 162(12), 2330-2336.
8. Wilson T.W., Hernandez O.O., Asherin R.M., et al. Cortical gamma generators suggest abnormal auditory circuitry in early-onset psychosis. Cereb Cortex, 2008; 18, 371–378.
9. Williams LM, Whitford TJ, Gordon E, et al. Neural synchrony in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia: tracking relations with grey matter and symptom profile. J Psychiatry Neuroscience, 2009; 34, 21–29.
10. Cho R.Y., Konecky R.O., Carter C.S. Impairments in frontal cortical gamma synchrony and cognitive control in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 2006; 103(198), 78–83.
11. Minzenberg M. J., Firl A. J., Yoon J. H., Gomes G. C., Reinking C., & Carter C. S. Gamma Oscillatory Power is Impaired During Cognitive Control Independent of Medication Status in First-Episode Schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2010; 35(13), 2590–2599.
12. Spencer K.M., Niznikiewicz M.A., Shenton M.E., et al. Sensory-evoked gamma oscillations in chronic schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 2008;63:744–747.
13. Tikka S.K., Nizamie SH, Das B, Katshu MZ, Goyal N. Increased spontaneous gamma power and synchrony in schizophrenia patients having higher minor physical anomalies. Psychiatry Res. 2013; 207(3):164-72.
14. Mitra, S., Nizamie, S. H., Goyal, N. and Tikka S. K. Evaluation of resting state gamma power as a response marker in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 2015; 69: 630–639.
15. Williams A. B.; Taylors F. J. Electronic Filter Design Handbook. New York McGraw-Hill 1988.
16. Kam J. W. Y., Bolbecker A. R., O’Donnell B. F., Hetrick W. P., Brenner C. A. Resting state EEG power and coherence abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2013: 47(12), 1893-1901.
17. Stoica P., Moses R. Spectral Analysis of Signals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005
18. Mallat S. G., Zhang Z. Matching Pursuit with time-frequency dictionaries. IEEE Transactions On Signal Processing,1993; 41(12), 3397-3415.
19. Franaszczuk P. J, Bergey G. K., Durka P. J., Eisenberg H. M. Time-frequency analysis using the matching pursuit algorithm to seizures originating from mesial temporal lobe. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1998; 106(6), 513-521.
20. Stuckey D.E., Lawson R., Luna L.E. EEG gamma coherence and other correlates of subjective reports during ayahuasca experiences. J Psychoactive Drugs.2005; 37(2):163-78.
21. Borjigin J., Lee U., Liu T., Pal D., Huff S., Klarr D., Mashour G. A. Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013; 110(35): 14432–14437.
22. Medvedev A. V., Murro A. M., Meador K. J. Abnormal interictal gamma activity may manifest a seizure onset zone in temporal lobe epilepsy. International Journal of Neural Systems, 2011; 21:02:103-114.
23. Buzsáki G, da Silva F.L. High frequency oscillations in the intact brain. Prog Neurobiol. 2012; 98:241–249.
24. Pajevic S., Basser P. J., & Fields R. D. Role of Myelin Plasticity in Oscillations and Synchrony of Neuronal Activity. Neuroscience, 2014; 276, 135–147.
25. Liu I., Dietz K., DeLoyht J. M., Pedre X., Kelkar D., Kaur I., et al. Impaired adult myelination in the prefrontal cortex of socially isolated mice. Nature Neuroscience, 2012; 15, 1621–1624.