An Outcomes-Based Education (Obe) Approach & Typology-Based Quality Assurance (Qa) System: A Proposed Framework And Transition Strategy For Philippine Higher Education Institution’s (HEI) Shift Towards International Standards

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This study is part of a bigger study supporting the Philippine Government’s Medium-Term Plan to institute major reforms in its educational system. The main research question of this study is how can Philippine Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) shift towards an Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) approach and typology-based Quality Assurance (QA) System that would meet international standards? Specifically, the study aimed to: 1) craft a Ten-year transition strategy (AY 2012-2022) for Philippine HEIs to become compliant to international accords 2) design a framework for an Outcomes-based Education (OBE) approach and typology-based Quality Assurance (QA) system for HEIs; and 3) on the bases of the results, design a Model academic Course Syllabus in the field of business, particularly the BS Accountancy Program that applies OBE approach and typology-based QA using an actual case of an existing HEI- La Consolacion College Manila (LCCM), Philippines. The researchers’ main motivation in undertaking this study was the specific significant contribution to LCCM-a 100-year old HEI that is in need of a transition strategy during Academic Year 2012-2022 and the benefits to national interest. The Philippines has consistently lagged behind in the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index, placing 65th worldwide and 3rd least competitive among its Southeast Asian neighbours. The conceptual framework primarily used three of the world’s most popular quality management system models – Deming’s PDCA Cycle used in ISO 9001:2008 QMS, Baldrige Framework –Education Criteria for Performance Excellence (MBNQA,2010) and Kaplan’s Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Methodology (Kaplan and Norton,2000).

The methodology used was a descriptive- case analysis research design primarily using secondary data analysis technique to analyse existing publications, memorandum orders, and studies from government and private agencies. Primary data was sourced from internal records of LCCM--the sample case study. The study showed that Outcomes-based framework presupposes quality and goals anchored on the Vision-Mission-Goals and Objectives (VMGO) of HEIs. Thus, HEIs define their VMGO in response to local contexts and their assessment of institutional strengths and weaknesses, the quality goals and outcomes of HEIs necessarily differ. It can be concluded that Philippine HEIs are not differentiated along the mission and functions vis-à-vis the national goals, with specific focus (target clientele, resource requirement and competencies of graduates). Typology-based QA for HEI must therefore be classified into three types: a) Professional Institutes b) Colleges and c) Universities. The study recommends immediate implementation of the 12-year Basic education (K-12) to comply with international accords (Washington and Bologna) in view of the economic impact of the gap during the transition phase. Strategies were crafted and designed for LCCM which may be applicable to HEIs in the Philippines during the 10-year transition stage (AY2012-2022). It is recommended that HEIs should adopt OBE approach and typology-based QA to produce world class graduates with competencies in accord with international standards. Private accrediting and certifying agencies must subsequently revise criteria to conform to these new methodology and typology, and to suit to the needs of HEIs aligned with the national goals and cascaded down to its VMGO. A Proposed BS Accountancy (BSA) Course Syllabus was developed in this study that may serve as a Model for all HEIs. It is further recommended that government regulatory units such as CHED and PRC, local accrediting agencies such as PAAASCU/PACU-COA, and international certifying agencies such as SGS for ISO and MBNQA for Baldrige, must use standards on the basis of this new typology. Finally, the study recommends an 8-step Action Plan for HEIs, starting with the K-12 implementation in Basic Education to cascading the HEI’s VMGOs into Program Course objectives following the OBE approach and revised HEI typology.


  • 1. CHED. Technical Panel Report: Towards a Typology of Philippine HEIs, Pasig City, CHED (2003)

  • 2. Deming, W.E. Out of the Crisis. Massuchusettes: MIT Press,88 (1986)

  • 3. Kaplan, R. and Norton, The Balanced Scorecard, HBR (1995)

  • 4. Paascu (2011) Retrieved from

  • 5. Pacu-coa (2009) Retrieved from

  • 6. Ruben, B. D., Toward A Balanced Scorecard for HEI, Higher Education Forum, Rudgers University, (1999)

  • 7. The Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award: Excellence Model, (2010)

  • 8. Times Higher Education (THE) and Quacquarelli (QS) Symonds University Ranking Report (2011)

  • 9. World Bank (2011), Skills and Research for Growth in East Asia. East Asia & Pacific Regiona,l Report, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

  • 10. World Economic Forum(WEF) Report, (2012)

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