Conventional and Alternative Disinfection Methods of Legionella in Water Distribution Systems – Review

Open access

Abstract

Prevalence of Legionella in drinking water distribution systems is a widespread problem. Outbreaks of Legionella caused diseases occur despite various disinfectants are used in order to control Legionella. Conventional methods like thermal disinfection, silver/copper ionization, ultraviolet irradiation or chlorine-based disinfection have not been effective in the long term for control of biofilm bacteria. Therefore, research to develop more effective disinfection methods is still necessary.

[1] G. Bitton, Microbiology of Drinking Water Production and Distribution. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014. 298 p.

[2] Y. W. Cheng, R. C. Y. Chan and P. K. Wong, “Disinfection of Legionella pneumophila by photocatalytic oxidation,” Water Research, vol. 41, issue 4, pp. 842–852, Feb. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.11.033

[3] M. F. Dadjour, C. Ogino, S. Matsumura et al., “Disinfection of Legionella pneumophila by ultrasonic treatment with TiO2,” Water Research, vol. 40, issue 6, pp. 1137–1142, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.12.047

[4] Y. S. Chen, Y. E. Lin, Y.-C. Liu et al., “Efficacy of point-of-entry copper-silver ionisation system in eradicating Legionella pneumophila in a tropical tertiary care hospital: implications for hospitals contaminated with Legionella in both hot and cold water,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 68, issue 2, pp. 152–158, Feb. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2007.10.020

[5] Y. Delaedt, A. Daneels, P. Declerck, et al., “The impact of electrochemical disinfection on Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila in tap water,” Microbiological Research, vol. 163, issue 2, pp. 192–199, March 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2006.05.002

[6] H. Y. Buse, M. E. Schoen, N. J. Ashbolt, “Legionellae in engineered systems and use of quantitative micribial risk assessment to predict exposure,” Water Research, vol. 46, isse 4, pp. 921–933, Mar. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.12.022

[7] L. A. Beltz, Emerging Infectious Diseases. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. 734 p.

[8] B. R. Kim, J. E. Anderson, S. A. Mueller, et. al. “Literature review – efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in water systems,” Water Research, vol. 36, isse 18, pp. 4433–4444, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00188-4

[9] N. Okafor, Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic and Waste Systems. New York: Springer, 2011, 307 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1460-1

[10] A. B. Pandit and J. K. Kumar, Drinking Water Disinfection Techniques. New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2013, 252 p.

[11] P. Borella, M. T. Montagna, V. Romano-Spica et al., “Legionella infection risk from domestic hot water,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, pp. 457–464, Mar. 2004. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1003.020707

[12] B. Zietz, F. Wiese, F. Brenglemann et al., “Presence of Legionellaceae in warm water supplies and typing of strains by polimerase chain reaction,” Epidemiol. Infect, vol. 126, issue 1, pp. 147–152, Feb. 2001.

[13] O. M. Zacheus and P. J. Martikainen, “Occurrence of legionellae in hot water distribution systems of Finland apartment buildings,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 40, issue 2, pp. 993–999, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1139/m94-159

[14] O. Valciņa, D. Pūle, S. Makarova et al., “Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila in Hot Potable Water in Latvia,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, pp. 135–140, Mar. 2013.

[15] S. N. Hussain, “Disinfection of water by adsorption combined with electrochemical treatment,” Water Research, vol. 54, pp. 170–178, May 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.043

[16] L. Rizzo, “Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primart disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 165, issue 1–3, pp. 48–51, June 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.09.068

[17] M. I. Kerwick, S. M. Reddy, A. H. L. Chamberlain et al., “Electrochemical disinfection, an environmentally acceptable method of drinking water disinfection?” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 50, issue 25–26, pp. 5270–5277, Sept. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.074

[18] X. Qu, P. J. J. Alvarez and Q. Li, “Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment,” Water Research, vol. 47, issue 12, pp. 3931–3946, Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.058

[19] Y. E. Jin, J. E. Stout, V. L. Yu et al., “Disinfection of Water Distribution Systems for Legionella,” Seminars in Respiratory Infections, vol. 13, issue 2, pp. 147–159, June 1998.

[20] F. Gosselin, L. M. Madeira, T. Juhna et al., “Drinking water and biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like reaction,” Water Research, vol. 47, issue 15, pp. 5631–5638, Oct. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.06.036

[21] Y. Chen, Y. Liu, S. S. Lee et al., “Abbreviated duration of superheat-and-flush and disinfection of taps for Legionella disinfection: Lessons learned from failure,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 33, issue 10, pp. 606–610, Dec. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2004.12.008

[22] D. S. Blanc, Ph. Carrara, G. Zanetti, et al., “Water disinfection with ozone, copper and silver ions, and temperature increase to control Legionella: seven years of experience in a university teaching hospital,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 60, issue 1, pp. 69–72, May 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2004.10.016

[23] I. Marchesi, S. Cencetti, P. Marchegiano et al., “Control of Legionella contamination in a hospital water distribution system by monochloramine,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 40, issue 3, pp. 279–281, Apr. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2011.03.008

[24] I. Marchesi, P. Marchegiano, A. Bargellini et al., “Effectiveness of different methods to control Legionella in the water supply: ten-year experience in an Italian university hospital,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 77, issue 1, pp. 47–51, Jan. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2010.09.012

[25] M. Triassi, A. Di Popolo, G. Ribera D’Alcala et al., “Clinical and environmental distribution of Legionella pneumophila in a univeristy hospital in Italy: efficacy of ultraviolet disinfection,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 62, issue 4, pp. 494–501, Apr. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2005.09.029

[26] E. F. Peiro Callizo, J. Darpon Sierra, J. M. Santos Pombo et al., “Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Pastormaster method for disinfection of Legionella in a hospital water distribution system,” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 60, issue 2, pp. 150–158, June 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2004.11.018

[27] W. A. M. Hijnen, E. F. Beerendonk and G. J. Medema, “Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: A review,” Water Research, vol. 40, issue 1, pp. 3–22, Jan. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.10.030

[28] R. E. Raudalesa, J. L. Parkeb, C. L. Guyc et al., “Control of waterborne microbes in irrigation: A review,” Agricultural Water Management, vol. 143, pp. 9–28, Sep. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.06.007

[29] N. Pozos, K. Scow, S. Wuertz et al., “UV disinfection in a model distribution system: biofilm grotth and microbial community,” Water Research, vol. 38, issue 13, pp. 3083–3091, July 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.04.011

[30] S. Perez Cachafeiro, I. Mato Naveira and I. Gonzalez Garcıa, “Is copperesilver ionisation safe and effective in controlling legionella?” Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 67, issue 3, pp. 209–216, Nov. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2007.07.017

[31] M. G. Hwang, H. Katayama and S. Ohgaki, “Inactivation of Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Evaluation of the bactericidal ability of silver cations,” Water Research, vol. 41, issue 16, pp. 4097–4104, Oct. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2007.05.052

[32] Y. E. Lin, J. E. Stout and V. L. Yu, “Controlling Legionella in Hospital Drinking Water: An Evidence Based Review of Disinfection Methods,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 32, issue 2, pp. 166–173, Feb. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1086/657934

[33] M. N. Chong, B. Jin, C.W.K. Chow et al., “Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: a review,” Water Research, vol. 44, issue 10, pp. 2997–3027, May 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.02.039

[34] M. Dupuy, S. Mazoua, F. Berne et al., “Efficiency of water disinfectants against Legionella pneumophila and Actanthamoeba,” Water Research, vol. 45, issue 3, pp. 1087–1094, Jan. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.10.025

[35] H. Bergmann, A. T. Koparal, A. S. Koparal et al., “The influence of products and by-products obtained by drinking water electrolysis on microorganisms,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 89, issue 2, pp. 98–107, Aug. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2007.12.007

[36] L. C. Simoes and M. Simoes, “Biofilms in drinking water: problems and solutions,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, pp. 2520–2533, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1039/C2RA22243D

[37] Z. Zhang, C. McCann, J. Hanrahan et al., “Legionella control by chlorine dioxide in hospital water systems,” Journal of American Water Works Association, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 117–127, May 2009.

[38] J. Szabo and S. Minamyer, “Decontamination of biological agents from drinking water infrastructure: A literature review and summary,” Environment International, vol. 72, pp. 124–128, Nov. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.031

[39] A. H. Havelaar, A. E. M. De Hollander, P. F. M. Teunis et al., “Balancing the Risks and Benefits of Drinking Water Disinfection: Disability Adjusted Life-Years on the Scale,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 108, issue 4, pp. 315–321, Apr. 2000. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.00108315

[40] M. Flores, R. Brandi, A. Cassano and M. Labas, “Water disinfection with UVC and/or chemical inactivation. Mechanistic differences, implications and consequences,” in Advanced Oxidation Technologies. Sustainable solutions for environemtal treatments. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2014, ch. 15, 348 p.

[41] A. Vazquez-Morillas, K. Robles-Estrada, A. L. Blanno-de la Vega et al., “Heterogeneous Fenton Applied to Disinfection and Oxidation of Organic Matter Wastewater Treatment Pilot Plant in Mexico,” in International Conference on Biological, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dubai, UAE, 2014.

[42] A. Selvakumar, M. E. Tuccillo, S. Muthukrishnan et al., “Use of Fenton’s Reagent as a Disinfectant,” Remediation Journal, vol. 19, issue 2, pp. 135–142, Mar. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1002/rem.20208

[43] M I. Litter, R. J. Candal and J. M. Meichtry, Advanced Oxidation Techniques. Sustainable solutions for environmental treatments. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2014, 348 p.

[44] X. Song, S. Wang, G. Zhang and F. Wu, “Use of combined Fenton process for ammunition disposal wastewater: A pilot plant study,” in The 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Bejing, China, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/icbbe.2009.5163733

[45] D. Van der Kooij, H. R. Veenendaal, W. J. H. Scheffer, “Biofilm formation and multiplication of Legionella in a model warm water system with pipes of coppeer, stainless steel and cross-linked polyethylene,” Water Research, vol. 39, issue 13, pp. 2789–2798, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.04.075

[46] H. Li, X. Zhu, J.Ni, “Comparison of electrochemical method with ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination in drinking water disinfection,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 56, issue 27, pp. 9789–9796, Nov. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.08.053

[47] J. L. Baron, J. K. Harris, E. P. Holinger et al., “Effect of monochloramine treatment on the microbial ecology of Legionella and associated bacterial populations in a hospital water system,” Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 38, issue 3, pp. 198–205, May 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2015.02.006

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 372 372 15
PDF Downloads 372 372 49