Thermal conditions for geothermal energy exploitation in the Transcarpathian depression and surrounding units

Open access


The contribution presents the results acquired both by direct cognitive geothermic methods and by modelling approaches of the lithosphere thermal state in the region of the Transcarpathian depression and surrounding units. The activities were aimed at the determination of the temperature field distribution and heat flow density distribution in the upper parts of the Earth’s crust within the studied area. Primary new terrestrial heat flow density map was constructed from values determined for boreholes, from their interpretations and from newest outcomes of geothermal modelling methods based on steady-state and transient approaches, and also from other recently gained geophysical and geological knowledge. Thereafter we constructed the maps of temperature field distribution for selected depth levels of up to 5000 m below the surface. For the construction we have used measured borehole temperature data, the interpolation and extrapolation methods, and the modelling results of the refraction effects and of the influences of source type anomalies. New maps and other geothermic data served for the determination of depths with rock temperatures suitable for energy utilization namely production of electric energy minimally by the binary cycles. Consequently the thermal conditions were used to identify the most perspective areas for geothermal energy exploitation in the region under study.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bielik M. Alasonati-Tašárová Z. Zeyen H. Dérerová J. Afonso J. C. Csicsay K. 2010: Improved geophysical image of the Carpathian-Pannonian basin region. Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung. 45 3 284–298.

  • Bielik M. Majcin D. Fusán O. Burda M. Vyskočil V. Trešl J. 1991: Density and geothermal modelling of the Western Carpathian Earth’s crust. Geologica Carpathica 42 6 315–322.

  • Buntebarth G. 1984: Geothermics. An introduction. Springer Verlag 1–144.

  • Buryanov V. B. Gordienko V. V. Zavgorodnyaya O. V. Kulik S. N. Logvinov I. M. 1985: Geophysical Model for the Tectonosphere of the Ukraine. Naukova Dumka Kiev 1–212 (in Russian).

  • Čermák V. Hurtig E. 1979: Heat Flow Map of Europe. In: Čermák V. Rybach L. (Eds.) Terrestrial Heat Flow in Europe. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (Enclosure map).

  • Čermák V. Král M. Kubík J. Šafanda J. Krešl M. Kuferová L. Jančí J. Lizoň I. Marušiak I. 1992: Subsurface temperature and heat flow density maps on the territory of Czechoslovakia. In: Hurtig V. Čermák V. Haenel R. Zui V. I. (Eds.) Geothermal Atlas of Europe. Hermann Haack Geogr.-Kart. Anstalt Gotha 21–24.

  • Dérerová J. Zeyen H. Bielik M. Salman K. 2006: Application of integrated geophysical modeling for determination of the continental lithospheric thermal structure in the Eastern Carpathians. Tectonics 25/3 doi: TC3009 10.1029/2005TC001883.

  • Dövényi P. Horváth F. 1988: A review of temperature thermal conductivity and heat flow data from the Pannonian Basin. In: Royden L. H. and Horváth F. (Eds.): The Pannonian Basin a Study in Basin Evolution Amer. Assoc. Petr. Geol. Mem. 45 195–233.

  • Dövényi P. Horváth F. Liebe P. Gálfi J. Erki I. 1983: Geothermal conditions of Hungary Geophys. Transactions 29 1 3–114.

  • Franko O. Fusán O. Král M. Majcin D. 1986. Distribution of high and middle temperature geothermal waters and hot dry rock in Slovakia. In: Geothermal energy of Slovakia and their utilization. Dionýz Štúr Institute of Geology Bratislava 81–92 (in Slovak).

  • Franko O. Fusán O. Král M. Remšík A. Fendek M. Bodiš D. Drozd V. Vika K. 1995: Atlas of Geothermal Energy of Slovakia Dionýz Štúr Institute of Geology Bratislava 1–194.

  • Global heat flow database of the International heat flow commision of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s Interior 2011. University of North Dakota. Electronic document

  • Gordienko V. V. Gordienko I. V. Zavgorodnyaya O. V. Logvinov I. M. Tarasov V. N. Usenko O. V. 2004: Geothermal atlas of Ukraine. Korvin Press Kiev 1–61 (in Russian).

  • Gordienko V. V. Gordienko I. V. Zavgorodnyaya O. V. Usenko O. V. 2002: A thermal field of territory of Ukraine. Znannya Kiev 1–170 (in Russian).

  • Gordienko V. V. Zavgorodnyaya O. V. 1996: Estimation of heat flow in Poland. Acta Geophysica Polonica 44 2 173–180.

  • Górecki B. 2013: Geothermal atlas of the Eastern Carpathians. Goldruk Krakow 1-791. (in Polish with English resume) Hurtig E. Cermak V. Haenel R. Zui V. 1992: Geothermal Atlas of Europe. Hermann Haack Geographisch-Kartographische Anstalt Gotha 1–156.

  • Grytsik I. Kurovets I. Osadchyi V. Prykhodko O. 2007: Current state of studying heat conductivity of hydrocarbon reservoir rocks. Geologiya i geohimiya goryuchih kopalin 3 43–48 (in Ukrainian).

  • Hlavňová P. Bielik M. Dérerová J. Kohút I. Pašiaková M. 2015: A new lithospheric model in the eastern part of the Western Carpatians: 2D integrated modelling. Contributions to Geophysics and Geodesy 45 1 13–23 doi: 10.1515/congeo-2015-0010.

  • Hurtig V. Čermák V. Haenel R. Zui V.l. 1992: Geothermal Atlas of Europe. Hermann Haack Geogr.-Kart. Anstalt Gotha (Enclosure maps).

  • Husák L’. 1986: Density and radioactivity of rocks of Inner Western Carpathians. Manuscript Geofond Bratislava 1–124 p. (in Slovak).

  • Hvoždara M. 2008: Refraction effect in the heat flow due to 3-D prismoid situated in two-layered Earth. Contrib. Geophys. Geod. 38 4 371–390.

  • Hvoždara M. Majcin D. 2013: Geothermal heat flux anomaly due to a 3D prismoid situated in the second layer of a three-layered Earth. Contrib. Geophys. Geod. 43 1 39–58.

  • Jančí J. 1992: Rock thermophysical parameters of East Slovakian Basin measurement methods and utilization in geothermal exploration. Thesis. Department of applied and environmental geophysics Faculty of natural sciences CU Bratislava 1–154 (in Slovak).

  • Jančí J. Král M. 1986: Thermal conductivity of rocks in Western Carpathians. In: Geothermal energy of Slovakia and their utilization. Dionýz Štúr Institute of Geology Bratislava 25–30 (in Slovak).

  • Jančí J. Král M. 1990: Thermophysical parameters of rocks and soils. Manuscript Geofond Bratislava 1–15 (in Slovak).

  • Jaupart C. Mareschal J. C. 2011: Heat Generation and Transport in the Earth. Cambridge University Press 464 p.

  • Karwasiecka M. Bruszewska B 1997: Surface heat flow density in the region of Poland. Centralne Archivum Geologiczne. Warszawa. Manuscript 21/98 (in Polish).

  • Kovács B. Virág M. Szanyi J. Avram I. Olah S. Konecsny A. Mikita V. Mizsányi E. Bereczki N. 2011: The Geothermal Atlas of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County (Hungary) and Satu Mare (Szatmár) County (Romania). Manuscript Miskolc 66 p.

  • Kováč M. 2000: Geodynamic paleogeographic and structural development of the Carpathian-Pannonian region in Miocene. Veda Bratislava 1–202 (in Slovak).

  • Král M. 1991: Neogene basins of Western Carpathians – geothermal model of the East Slovakian Basin. (Neogénne panvy Západných Karpát – geotermálny model východoslovenskej panvy.) MS Geofond Bratislava (in Slovak).

  • Král M. Lizoň I. Jančí J. 1985: Geothermal exploration of SSR. (Geotermický výskum SSR). Manuscript Geofyzika Bratislava 1–116 (in Slovak).

  • Kruglov S. S. Gurskij D. S. 2007: Tectonic map of Ukraine 1:1000000. State Geological Survey of Ukraine. Kiev (in Ukrainian).

  • Kutas R. I. 2011: Reflection of the Eastern Carpathian tectonic in thermal field. Geodinamika 11 2 147–149 (in Russian).

  • Kutas R. I. 2014: Heat flow and geothermal crustal model of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Geophysical Journal Kiev 36 6 3–27 (in Russian).

  • Kutas R. I. Gordienko V. V. 1971: Thermal field of Ukraine. Naukova Dumka Kiev. 1–141. (in Russian).

  • Kutas R. I. Majcin D. 2014: Geothermal conditions for Neovolcanism in Transcarpathian through. Geology 66 3 Kiev 39–43 (in Russian).

  • Kutas R. I. Tsvyashchenko V. A. Korchagin I. N. 1989: Modelling thermal field of the continental lithosphere. Naukova Dumka Kiev (in Russian).

  • Lenkey L. Dövényi P. Horváth F. Cloetingh S. A. P. L. 2002: Geothermics of the Pannonian basin it’s bearing on the neotectonics. EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series 3 29–40.

  • Lexa J. Bezák V. Elečko M. Mello J. Polák M. Potfaj M. Vozár J. 2000: Geological map of the Western Carpathians and adjacent area 1:500000. Geological Survey of Slovak Republic.

  • Majcin D. 1982: Mathematical models of stationary heat conduction. Contrib. Geophys. Geod. 13 135–151.

  • Majcin D. 1992: Refraction of heat flow on the near-surface structures with thermal conductivity contrast. Contrib. Geophys. Instit. Slov. Acad. Sci. 22 67–80.

  • Majcin D. 1993: Thermal state of the west carpathian lithosphere. Studia Geophysica & Geodætica 37 4 345–364.

  • Majcin D. Bilčík D. Hvoždara M. 2012: Refraction of heat flow on subsurface contrast structures – the influence both on geothermal measurements and interpretation approaches. Contrib. Geophys. Geod. 42 2 133–159.

  • Majcin D. Bilčík D. Kutas R. I. Hlavňová P. Bezák V. Kucharič L’. 2014: Regional and local phenomena influencing the thermal state in the Flysch belt of the northeastern part of Slovakia. Contrib. Geophys. Geod. 44 4 271–292.

  • Majcin D. Polák Sz. 1995: Refraction of heat flow near the border of the sedimentary basins with topography. . Contrib. Geophys. Instit. Slov. Acad. Sci. 25 99–112.

  • Majcin D. Tsvyashchenko V. A. 1994: The influence of magmatism on the thermal field in northern part of Transcarpathian depression. Contrib. Geophys. Inst. SAS 24 72–86.

  • Plewa M. Plewa S. Poprawa D. Tomaś A. 1992: Poland. In: Hurtig E. et al.: Geothermal Atlas of Europe. Hermann Hack Verlagsgesellschaft; Geographisch-Kartographische Anstalt 57–59.

  • Project report “Altener II” 2005: Intergated Feasibility Study on Geothermal Utilisation in Hungary. Geothermal Power Project Altener II 4.1030/Z/02-045. Electronic publication (

  • Rudinec R. 1989: Crude oil Natural Gas and Geothermal energy Resources in Eastern Slovakia (Zdroje ropy zemného plynu a geotermálnej energie na východnom Slovensku). Alfa Bratislava 1–162 (in Slovak).

  • Tarasov V. Gordienko V. Gordienko I. Zavgorodnyaya O. Logvinov I. Usenko O. 2005: Heat Field Deep Processes and Geoelectrical Model of East Carpathians. In: Proceedings of World Geothermal Congress 2005 Antalya Turkey.

  • Vaňková V. Bartošek J. Chlupáčová M. Matolín M. 1979: Radioactivity and heat production of rocks from the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians. In: Geodynamic Investigation in Czechoslovakia Veda Bratislava. 257–263.

  • Wróblewska M. 2007: The thermal regime in deep lithosphere in the region of Polish Carpathians. Geologia 33 4/1 237-246 (in Polish).

  • Wybraniec S. 2008: Heat flow density. Central Europe. Manuscript (in Polish).

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.52

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.312
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.615

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 174 82 3
PDF Downloads 105 58 0