Specifics of soil temperature under winter wheat canopy

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter wheat canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for phytopathological prediction models, crop development, and yield models. The measurement of soil temperatures was performed at the experimental field station ˇZabˇcice (Europe, the Czech Republic, South Moravia). The soil in the first experimental plot is Gleyic Fluvisol with 49-58% of the content particles measuring < 0.01 mm, in the second experimental plot, the soil is Haplic Chernozem with 31-32% of the content particles measuring < 0.01 mm. The course of soil temperature and its specifics were determined under winter wheat canopy during the main growth season in the course of three years. Automatic soil temperature sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m under soil surface), air temperature sensor in 0.05 m above soil surface. Results of the correlation analysis showed that the best interrelationships between these two variables were achieved after a 3-hour delay for the soil temperature at 0.05 m, 5-hour delay for 0.10 m, and 8-hour delay for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient reached values from 0.75 to 0.89 for the depth of 0.05 m, 0.61 to 0.82 for the depth of 0.10 m, and 0.33 to 0.70 for the depth of 0.20 m. When using multiple regression with quadratic spacing (modeling hourly soil temperature based on the hourly near surface air temperature and hourly soil moisture in the 0.10-0.40 m profile), the difference between the measured and the model soil temperatures at 0.05 m was −2.16 to 2.37 ◦ C. The regression equation paired with alternative agrometeorological instruments enables relatively accurate modeling of soil temperatures (R2 = 0.93).

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