Evaluation of Algae Farming Using the Chlorella Bioassay

Open access


Algae are gaining attention for their application in aquaculture as a highly sustainable source of useful products. As microalgae have a significant role in primary production in aquatic ecosystems and are the basis of many food chains, it is important to understand the processes that provide them with better survival in a toxicant-polluted environment. In this study the Chlorella bioassay was evaluated: (1) as a potential method for algae farming, (2) as a method for testing advantages or disadvantages of symbiotic association, including two species of aposymbiotic algae, i.e. endosymbiotic algae isolated from green hydra Mychonastes homosphaera (Skuja) Kalina and Punčochářová and Desmodesmus subspicatus (Chodat) Hegewald and Schmidt) and two related free-living algal species (Chlorella kessleri Fott and Novak. [K&H, 1992] and C. vulgaris Beij. [K&H, 1992]), (3) through algal bioindicator responses related to comparative toxicity and ecotoxicological pollution of iron, and (4) by using algal bioindicators for microscopical and morphometrical application in environmental stress. Increasing concentrations of iron led to cell changes (dry dotted clusters of dying cells, intensive green wet bubbles representing a mucous structure, area, diameter and length), deformations (empty cells, aberrant divisions, irregular coenobia, tetrads and transitional forms) and ultrastructural changes (chloroplasts and nuclei). All modifications were more pronounced in aposymbiotic algae, suggesting a lower degree of adaptation to iron toxicity than their free-living relatives. A free-living species C. kessleri showed the best ability to survive in given unfavorable environmental conditions. High statistical significance was noticed in the cell division parameter, underlining the hormetic effect of increasing the biomass in free-living algal species. This increasing of the cell divisions at the specific concentration of iron demonstrated that the Chlorella bioassay may represent a useful tool for evaluating the growth of different microalgal species, and has a prospective application in a comparative study of algae farming.

Abrous, O., Benhassaine Kesri, G., Tremolieres, A., Mazijak, P. (1998): Effect of norflurazon on lipid metabolism in soya seedlings. Photochemistry, 49, 979-985.

Barclay, W.R., Meager, K.M., Abril J.R. (1994): Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms. Journal of Applied Phycology, 6, 2, 123-129.

Barghbani, R., Rezaei, K., Javanshir, A. (2012): Investigating the Effects of Several Parameters on the Growth of Chlorella vulgaris Using Taguchi’s Experimental Approach. International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries, 1, 128-133.

Carlsen, C.U., Moller, K.S., Skibsted, L.H. (2005): Heme-iron in lipid oxidation. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 249, 3-4, 485-498.

Chen, J.B., Busigny, V., Gaillardet, J., Louvat, P, Wang, Y.N. (2014): Iron isotopes in the Seine River (France): Natural versus anthropogenic sources. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 128, 128-143.

Dwivedi, S., Srivastava, S., Mishra, S., Dixit, B., Kumar, A., Tripathi, R.D. (2008): Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158, 2-3, 359-65.

Estevez, M.S., Malanga, G., Puntarulo, S. (2001): Iron-dependent oxidative stress in Chlorella vulgaris. Plant Science, 161, 1, 9-17.

Gouveia, L., Gomes, E., Empis, J. (1996): Potential use of a microalga (Chlorella vulgaris) in the pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle, Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 202, 1, 75-79.

Habetha, M., Anton-Erxleben, F., Neumann, K., Bosch, T.C. (2003): The Hydra viridis/Chlorella symbiosis. Growth and sexual differentiation in polyps without symbionts. Zoology, 106, 2, 101-108.

Horvatić, J., Vidaković Cifrek, Ž., Regula, I. (2000): Trophic level, bioproduction and toxicity of the water of lake Sakadaš (Nature park Kopački rit, Croatia). Limnological Reports, 33, 89-94.

Jones, D.S., Lapakko, K.A., Wenz, Z.J., Olson, M. C., Roepke, E.W., Sadowsky, M.J., Novak, P.J., Bailey, J.V. (2017): Novel microbial assemblages dominate weathered sulfide-bearing rock from copper-nickel deposits in the Duluth complex, Minnesota, USA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 83, 16, e00909-17.

Karntanut, W., Pascoe, D. (2005): Effects of removing symbiotic green algae on the response of Hydra viridissima (Pallas 1776) to metals. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60, 3, 301-305.

Kovačević, G., Franjević, D., Jelenčić, B., Kalafatić, M. (2010a): Isolation and Cultivation of Endosymbiotic Algae from Green Hydra and Phylogenetic Analysis of 18S rDNA Sequences. Folia biologica (Kraków), 58, 1-2, 135-43.

Kovačević, G., Radić, S., Jelenčić, B., Kalafatić, M., Posilović, H., Pevalek-Kozlina, B. (2010b) Morphological features and isoenzyme characterization of endosymbiotic algae from green hydra. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 284, 1-2, 33-39.

Kovačević, G., Gregorović, G., Matijević, A., Kalafatić, M. (2016): Toxic effects of iron on green and brown hydra. Current Science, 110, 4, 502-504.

Kovačević, G., Jelenčić, B., Kalafatić, M., Ljubešić, N. (2008): Chlorella test. Periodicum biologorum, 110, 4, 373-374.

Kovačević, G., Kalafatić, M., Horvatin, K. (2009): Aluminium deposition in Hydras. Folia biologica (Kraków), 57, 3-4, 139-142.

Lei, C., Zhang, L., Yang, K., Zhu, L., Lin, D. (2016): Toxicity of iron-based nanoparticles to green algae: Effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state and environmental aging. Environmental Pollution, 218, 505-512.

Maruyama, I., Nakao, T., Shigeno, I., Ando, Y., Hiarayama, K. (1997): Application of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris for the mass-culture of marine rotifer Brachionus. Hydrobiologia, 358, 133-138.

Moran, N. A. (2006): Symbiosis. Current Biology, 16, 20, 866-871.

Muzenda, E., Matambo, T.S., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Zimba, J., Diale, P.P. (2011): Biosorption of heavy metals contaminating the wonderfonteinspruit catchment area using Desmodesmus sp. International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, 5, 4, 384-393.

Odo, G.E., Agwu, J.E., Iyaji, F.O., Madu, J.C., Ossai, N.I., Allison, L.N. (2015): Mass production of rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus) for aquaculture in south-eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 7, 9, 151–159.

Ponka, P. (2000): Iron metabolism: Physiology and pathophysiology. Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, 13, 1, 73-83.

Pratt, R. (1941): Studies on Chlorella vulgaris IV. American Journal of Botany, 28, 6, 492–497.

Priyadarshani, I., Rath, B. (2012): Commercial and industrial applications of micro algae – A review. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization, 3, 4, 89-100.

Stebbing, A. (1982): Hormesis – The stimulation of growth by low levels of inhibitors. Science of the Total Environment, 22, 3, 213-234.

Stramarkou, M., Papadaki, S., Kyriakopoulou, K., Krokida, M. (2017): Effect of drying and extraction conditions on the recovery of bioactive compounds from Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Applied Phycology, 29, 6, 2947-2960.

Špoljar, M., Dražina, T., Lajtner, L., Kovačević, G., Pestić, A., Matijašec, D., Tomljanović, T. (2018): Impact of water level fluctuation in the shaping of zooplankton assemblage in a shallow lake. Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 76, 1, 27-34.

Štefan, L., Tepšić, T., Zavidić, T., Urukalo, M., Tota, D, Domitrović, R. (2007): Lipidna peroksidacija – uzroci i posljedice. Medicina Fluminensis 43, 2, 84-93.

Torres, M.A., Barros, M.P., Campos, S.S.G., Pinto, E., Rajamani, S., Sayre, R.T., Colepicolo, P. (2008): Biochemical biomarkers in algae and marine pollution: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 71, 1, 1-15.

Xing, W., Liu, G. (2011): Iron biogeochemistry and its environmental impacts in freshwater lakes. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 20, 6, 1339-1345.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.80

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.296
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.687


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 33 33 17
PDF Downloads 14 14 7