Learning by Doing: The EU’s Transformative Power and Conflicts in the Western Balkans

Open access

Abstract

The paper analyzes the European Community/ European Union experience in the Western Balkans in the period from 1990 onwards in different context in order to assess different mechanisms which the European Union has gained with building the Common Foreign and Security Policy and within the Enlargement Policy in the process of conflict prevention and conflict resolution. Additionally, the paper makes an assessment of the EU’s involvement in the conflict prevention and conflict resolution in the Balkans after the Stabilization and Association Process was launched in 1999. The authors argue that in the case of the military conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, when the European Community was confronted with serious and hard security issues at the very beginning of creating its Common Foreign and Security Policy and in a period of time when the region was not part of the enlargement process, the Community and the Union afterwards proved to be extremely ineffective. In the second part, through three case studies, the paper demonstrate that with the combined use of CFSP mechanisms and SAP, positive examples of the EU acting as a provider of peaceful dispute settlement in the Western Balkans have been established.

Blockmans, S., 2014. The EU as a global peacemaker. Inaugural lecture. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.

Blockmans, S. and Wessel, R. A., 2011. The European Union and Peaceful Settlement of Disputes in its Neighbourhood: the Emergence of a New Regional Security Actor?. In: Antoniadis, A., Schütze, R. and Spaventa, E. eds. The European Union and Global Emergencies: A Law and Policy Analysis. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Brsakoska Bazerkoska, J., 2016. The European Union and (Frozen) Conflicts in its Neighbourhood: The SAP and the ENP Compared. In: Gstohl, S. The European Neighbourhood Policy in Comparative Perspective: Models, Challenges, Lessons. Routledge.

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1991. Documents adopted by the Committee of Senior Officials in the Framework of the CSCE Mechanisms, Prague 3-4 July 1991 (UN Doc. S/22785, Annex I, II and III).

Council of the European Union, 2003. Thessaloniki Agenda for the Western Balkans: moving towards European integration. Thessaloniki, General Affairs and External Relations Council (GAERC) Conclusions, 16 June.

Eide, K., 2005. A comprehensive review of the situation in Kosovo. Letter from the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council, S/2005/635.

EC, 1991a. Statement on Yugoslavia. Brussels, 8 May (EC Press Release P. 42/91).

EC, 1991b. Statement on Yugoslavia. Brussels, 8 June (EC Press Release P.54/91).

EC, 1991c. Declaration on Yugoslavia adopted at the 82nd EPC Ministerial Meeting. The Hague, 10 July (EC Press Release P.62/91).

EC, 1991d. Declaration on Yugoslavia. Adopted at the EPC Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting, The Hague, 6 August (EC Press Release P.73/91);

EC, 1991e. Declaration on Yugoslavia adopted at the EPC Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting. The Hague, 20 August (EC Press Release P.77/91).

EC, 1991f. Declaration on Yugoslavia adopted at the EPC Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting. The Hague, 27 August (EC Press Release P.82/91).

EC, 1991. guidelines for the Recognition of New States in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. (UN Doc. S/23293, Annex II).

EC, 1991. EC Declaration Concerning the Conditions for Recognition of New States adopted at the Extraordinary EPC Ministerial Meeting. Brussels, 16 December. (UN. Doc. S/23293 Annex I).

EC, 1992a. Statement by the Presidency of the European Community on the Recognition of Yugoslav Republics. Brussels, 15 January (EPC Press Release, P.9/92).

EC, 1992b. Declaration on Recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Luxembourg, 6 April (UN Doc. S/23793, Annex).

European Council 1993. Presidency Conclusions. Copenhagen, European Council, 21-22 June.

Giandomenico, J., 2009. Path Dependency in EU Enlargement: Macedonia’s Candidate Status from a Historical Institutionalist Perspective. European Foreign Affairs Review, 14(1): 89-112.

Gligorov, K., 2000. Macedonia is everything we’ve got. Skopje: Izdavacki centar Tri.

International Crisis Group, 2007. Kosovo: No Good Alternative to the Ahtisaari Plan. Europe Report, 182. Available at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/europe/balkans/kosovo/182-kosovono-good-alternatives-to-the-ahtisaari-plan.aspx (Assessed March 2016).

Koeth, W., 2010. State Building without a State: the EU’s Dilemma in Defining its Relations with Kosovo. European Foreign Affairs Review, 15(2): 227-247.

Lehne, S., 2009. Resolving Kosovo’s Status. OIIP Policy Paper, June [pdf]. Available at: http://www.oiip.ac.at/fileadmin/Unterlagen/Dateien/Arbeitspapiere/Policy_Paper_Status_of_Kosovo.pdf.

Merlingen, M. and Ostrauskaite, R., 2006. European Union Peace building and Policing: Governance and the European Security and Defence Policy. Routledge.

Ohrid Framework Agreement, 2001. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia, [pdf]. Available at: http://www.ucd.ie/ibis/filestore/Ohrid%20Framework%20Agreement.pdf.

Patten, C., 2002. Speech at the Western Balkans Democracy Forum, Thessaloniki, 11 April [online]. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/ear/publications/main/pub-speech_thessaloniki_20020411.htm (Assessed August 2016).

Papadimitriou, D. and Petrov P., 2012. Whose Rule, Whose Law? Contested Statehood, External Leverage and the European Union’s Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo. Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(5): 746-763.

Rehn, O., 2007. SPEECH/07/488. European Parliament, Strasbourg, 11 July [online]. Available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-07-488_en.htm.

Sahlin, M., 2007. The Role of Macedonia in the Emergence of EU Crisis Management. Crossroads: The Macedonian Foreign Policy Journal, 2: 103-108.

Solana, J., 2001. Reuters, 27 November [online]. Available at: http://www.today.reuters.com.

Shaw M. N., 1997. International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tocci, N., 2007. The EU and Conflict Resolution: Promoting Peace in the Backyard. London: Routledge.

Trauner, F., 2011. The Europeanization of the Western Balkans - EU Justice and Home Affairs in Croatia and Macedonia. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

US Department of State 1991. Dispatch, Vol 2, No 27, July 8, 1991.

Croatian International Relations Review

The Journal of Institute for International Relations

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.147
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.626

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 113 113 14
PDF Downloads 38 38 11