For several years, the European Union (EU) has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI) has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali) - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i) broad participation, (ii) financial burden-sharing and (iii) the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
ABC, 2013. Spain to send 50 troops to join ElMed mission in Mali. 26 March.
Africa News, 2013. The EU at the forefront of efforts to finance the peace support mission in Mali. 5 April.
Agence France-Presse, 2014. France, Germany to send parts of joint brigade to Mali. Defense News, 19 February. Available at: http://www.defensenews.com/article/20140219/DEFREG01/302190033/France-Germany-Send-Parts-Joint-Brigade-Mali [accessed 14 May 2014].
Alexander, D., 2013. France in Mali: Panetta. Reuters, 16 January. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/16/us-mali-rebels-pentagon-idUSBRE90FHK20130116 [accessed 10 October 2013]
Al Jazeera, 2013. France launches Mali military intervention. 11 January. Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/01/2013111135659836345.html [accessed 10 October 2013).
Ashton, C., 2013. Statement on the situation in Mali (speech before the European Parliament, Strasbourg, France, 15 January). Official Journal (A 14): 13-15.
Associated Press, 2014a. Germany paves way for expanded Mali mission. The New Zealand Herald, 6 February.
Associated Press, 2014b. French-German brigade to train troops in Mali. The New Zealand Herald, 20 February.
Austrian Foreign Ministry, 2013a. Austria provides aid at international donor conference for Mali. 15 May. Available at: http://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/foreign-ministry/news/press-releases/2013/spindelegger-gemeinsam-fuer-ein-neues-mali.html [accessed 14 October 2013]
Austrian Foreign Ministry, 2013b. Example for peace-making potential of African regional organisations. 20 June. Available at: http://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/foreign-ministry/news/press-releases/2013/spindelegger-important-step-towards-peace-in-mali.html [accessed 17 October 2014].
Baltic News Service, 2013a. Lithuanian military instructors arrive in Mali for EU military training. 25 March.
Baltic News Service, 2013b. Head of EU Military Committee acknowledges Estonia's contribution to operations. 4 April.
Baltic News Service, 2013c. Estonian instructors start service on Mali training mission. 14 September.
BBC News, 2013a. Mali Profile. Updated 13 September. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-l3881978 [accessed 12 October 2013].
BBC News, 2013b. Mali and Tuareg rebels sign peace deal. 18 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-22961519 [accessed 12 October 2014].
Bennett, A., 2008. Building communities, bridging gaps: Alexander George's contributions to research methods. Political Psychology 29(4): 489-507.
Chiwis, C. S., 2010. EU Civilian Crisis Management: The Record So Far. RAND Corporation.
Coolsaet, R., Biscop, S. and Coelmont, J., 2013. Mali: Another European intervention without the EU? Security Policy Brief, 42 (January): 1-4.
Council Decision 2013/34/CFSP on a European Union military mission to contribute to the training of the Malian Armed Forces [EUTM Mali), Official Journal (L 14), 19-21.
Council Decision 2013/87/CFSP on the launch of a European Union military mission to contribute to the training of the Malian Armed Forces (EUTM Mali), Official Journal (L 46), 27.
Council of the European Union, 2009. European Security and Defence Policy 1999-2009. ESDP Newsletter, 20 October. Available at: http://consilium.europa.eu/media/l860991/esdp_newsletter-special_issue_esdp-10.pdf
Council of the European Union, 2013a. Conclusions on Mali, 3217th Foreign Affairs Council meeting, (Press Release), 17 January.
Council of the European Union, 2013c. Financing security and defence mlitary operations. What is Athena? Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/policies/fac/financing-security-and-defence-mlitary-operations-(athena) [accessed 15 October 2013].
Council of the European Union, 2014. EU training mission in Mali extended. Press Release, 15 April.
Czech News Agency, 2014. Defense Ministry mulls prolonging unit’s stay in Mali: Minister Stropnicky says the Czech Republic might also send soldiers to Central African Republic. Тће Prague Post, 15 April.
Defense News, 2013. Italy to send 3 planes to Mali for logistical support. 22 January. Available at: http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130122/DEFREG04/301220010/ltaly-Send-3-Planes-Mali-Logistical-Support [accessed 16 October 2013].
De Standaard, 2013. Fifty Belgian troops leave for Mali to protect EU training mission instructors. 11 July.
Deutsche Welle, 2013a. Mali: Keita wins in "credible" election. 12 August.
Deutsche Welle, 2013b. Mali: EU military trainers begin task of "rebuilding" Mali’s army. Africa News, 2 April.
Die Zeit, 2000. German defence minister says USA to retain major role in European security. 30 March.
Dutch News, 2013a. No Dutch involvement in EU mission to Mali. 24 June. Available at: http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archives/2013/06/no_dutchJnvolvement_in_eu_mi$.php [accessed 14 October 2013].
Dutch News, 2013b. Dutch may send major military mission to join UN efforts in Mali. 19 October. Available at: <http://www.dutchnews>. nl/news/archives/2013/10/dutch jTiay_send_majorjriilitary.php [accessed 14 October 2013].
EEAS, 2011. EU-NATO: The Framework for Permanent Relations and Berlin Plus. November. Available at: http://consi!ium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/03-11-1l%20Berlin%20Plus%20press%20note%20BL.pdf [accessed 10 October 2013].
EEAS, 2013a. Missions and Operations. June. Available at: http://www.eeas.europa.eu/csdp/missions-and-operations/index-en.htm [accessed 17 October 2013].
EEAS, 2013b. Common Security and Defence Policy. EU Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali). February. Available at: http://consilium.europa.eu/media/1892457/factsheet_eutm_mali_en_revlfinal.pdf [accessed 18 October 2013].
EEAS, 2013c. Common Security and Defence Policy. EU Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali). September. Updated version available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/csdp/missions-and-operations/eutm-mali/pdf/factsheet_eutm_mali_en.pdf [accessed 18 October 2013].
EEAS, 2014. Common Security and Defence Policy. EU Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali). April. Available at: http://www.eeas.europa.eu/csdp/missions-and-operations/eutm-mali/pdf/factsheet_eutm_mali_en.pdf [accessed 20 May 2014].
EU NAVFOR, 2014. EUNAVFOR Somalia. Mission. Available at: http://eunavfor.eu/mission
European Council, 2003. European Defence: NATO/EU Consultation, Planning and Operations. 2003. December. Available at: http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78414%20-%20EU-NATO%20Consultation,%20Planning%20and%200perations.pdf [accessed 10 October 2013].
EUTM Mali, 2013. Arrival of the Specialist Trainers. EUTM Mali, 15 April. Available at: http://www.eutmmali.eu/?p=648 [accessed 10 October 2013].
Federal Government, 2013. Large majority in the German Bundestag approves the Mali mandate. 28 February. Available at: http://www.bundesregierung.de/ContentArchiv/EN/Archivl7/Artikel/2013/02/2013-02-28-mali-mandate.html [accessed 12 October 2013].
Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 2013. Cabinet Committee on Foreign and Security Policy discussed Finland's participation in EU’s military training missions in Mali and Somalia. (Government Communications Department Press Release), 15 February.
Fiorenza, N., 2013a. EU launches training mission for Mali. Aviation Week, 18 February.
Fiorenza, N., 2013b. Mali mandates. Aviation Week, 28 February.
Fiorenza, N., 2013c. Plucky little Belgium in Mali. Aviation Week, 1 March.
Flanagan, P., 2013. Irish and British join Mali mission: Historic link-up as EU force faces al-Qaeda threat. Daily Mirror, 14 February.
George, A., 1979. Case studies and theory development: The method of structured, focused comparison. In: Lauren, P. G., ed.. Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy. New York: Free Press, pp. 43-68.
German Federal Foreign Office, 2014. Bundeswehr mission in Mali expanded. Last updated 20 February. Available at: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Aussenpolitik/Laender/Aktuelle-Artikel/Mali/140205-EUTM-Mali.html [accessed 21 May 2014].
Giegerich, B. and Nicoll, A., 2012. The struggle for value in European defence. Survival 54(1): 53-82.
Glaudot, A., 2013. EU/Mali: Training of Mali's armed forces begins. Europolitics, 8 April.
GlobalPost, 2013. Austria approves medical troops for Mali, 27 February. Available at: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130227/austria-approves-medical-troops-mali [accessed 14 October 2013].
Hynek, N., 2011. EU crisis management after the Lisbon Treaty: Civil- military coordination and the future of the EU OHQ. European Security 20(1): 81-102.
Jacobs, An D., 2012. EU crisis management in Berlin: The fall of ministerial walls? West European Politics 35(3): 466-490.
La Vanguardia, 2013. Defence minister rules out increasing number of Spanish troops in Mali. 28 February.
Le Drian, J., 2013. French soldiers to stay in Mali - minister. Interview by Frederic Riviere, Radio France Internationale, 14 June.
Le Monde, 2013. Hollande: Poperation au Mali "n’a pas d’autre but que la lute contre le terrorisme”. 12 January.
Lithuania Tribune, 2013a. Finland invited Lithuania to take part jointly in the EU Training Mission in Mali. 19 February.
Lithuania Tribune, 2013b. Lithuanian military instructor shares his impressions about the EU Training Mission in Mali. 21 September.
Lowery Derryck, V. and Paolo, B., 2013. Mali: After inauguration a chance to change military paradigm. allAfrica.com (Washington DC). 18 September.
Luxemburger Wort, 2013. Luxembourg sends soldier to Mali. 24 September. Available at: http://www.wort.lu/en/view/Iuxembourg-sends~soldier-to-mali-524197a4e4b03bafb5bde8d2 [accessed 14 October 2013].
Markey, P., 2014. Mali peace talks start in Algiers after prisoner swap. Reuters, 16 July. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/07/16/us-mali-talks-idUSKBNOFLlMD20140716 [accessed 16 July 2014].
Menon, A., 2011. European defence policy from Lisbon to Libya. Survival 53(3): 75-90.
Moravcsik, A., 1993. Preferences and power in the European Community: A liberal intergovernmentalist approach. Journal of Common Market Studies 31 (4): 473.
Moravcsik, A., 1995. Liberal intergovemmentalism and integration: A rejoinder. Journal of Common Market Studies 33(4): 611.
Muller, A., 2013. Germany aims to boost operations in Mali. Defense News. 19 February.
Muratore, A., 2010. EU-NATO cooperation and the pirates of the Gulf of Aden, AustraUan Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs 2(3): 90-102.
Penney, J., 2014. Mali PM warns of Islamist threat within Tuareg rebels. Reuters, 10 June. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/10/us-mali-primeminister-rebels-idUSKBNOELlY920140610 [accessed 15 July 2014].
Permanent Mission of Sweden to the United Nations, 2013. Swedish support to Mali. 22 February. Available at: http://www.swedenabroad.com/en-GB/Embassies/UN-New-York/Current-affairs/News/Swedish-support-to-Mali-sys/ [accessed 15 October 2013].
Polish News Bulletin, 2013. Gov't okays motion to send Polish army instructors to Mali. 30 January.
PR Newswire, 2013. Mali: Visit of French Defense Minister in Koulikoro training camp in Mali. 23 September.
Radio France Internationale, 2013. European Union approves of training mission of Malian army. 19 February.
Revault d’Allonnes, D., 2013. Hollande au Mali: Nous avons gagne cette guerre. Le Monde, 19 September.
Revelas, K., 2013. The European Union: A peace actor in the making? Reflections based on the ESDP crisis management operations in Africa. Review of European Studies 5(3): 73-82.
Ruszkowski, J., 2006. Supranationalism as a challenge for the European Union in the globalized world. Proceedings from the Global Jean Monnet Conference: Europe's Challenges in a Globalised World. Brussels, Belgium. Available at: http://www.pedz.uni-mannheim.de/daten/edz-kr/gdv/06/contributiorvruszkowski.pdf [accessed 29 September 2013].
Servimedia report on ABC, 2013. Next 43 soldiers sent to Mali to be paratroopers. 21 June.
Solana, J., 2003. A Secure Europe in a Better World. European Council, Thessaloniki 20 June 2003.
Solana, J., 2009. Opening remarks (speech, ESDP@10: What lessons for the future? Brussels, Belgium, 28 July). Printed in the Official Journal of the European Union (SI95).
Speak, C., 2013. Reluctance to join West African mission throws the EU's defense policy in flux. Prague Post, 3 April.
Svitak, A., 2013. The cost of Operation Serval. Aviation Week, 25 April.
UN News Centre, 2013. Mali: UN mission welcomes confirmation of presidential election results. 20 August. Available at: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewslD=45661#UIXnUhDpdCw [accessed 12 October 2013].
UN Security Council, 2012a. Resolution 2071 (2012) [On planning for military intervention in Mali] (S/Res/2071), 6846th meeting, 12 October.
UN Security Council, 2012a. Resolution 2085 (2012) [Authorizing deployment of a military mission to Mali] (S/Res/2085), 6898th meeting, 20 December.
Van Puyvelde, E., 2013. Foreign Affairs Council: EU launches training mission in Mali. Europolitics, 19 February.
Vaudin d'lmecourt, L., 2013. Foreign Affairs Council: Ministers agree to send training mission to Mali. Europolitics, 18 January.
Volkskrant, 2013. Mogelijk toch Nederlandse militairen naar Mali. 2 July. Available at: http://www.volkskrant.nl/vk/nl/2686/Binnenland/article/detail/3468971/2013/07/02/Mogelijk-toch-Nederlandse-militairen-naar-Mali.dhtml [accessed 12 October 2013].
Yin, R., 2003. Case Study Research: Designs and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.