Renal Cell Carcinoma – How Can We Predict its Outcomes in Clinical Practice?

Open access


Morbidity and mortality data of RCC (renal cell carcinoma) differs a lot among the European countries. In Latvia a growing trend in both incidence and mortality rates is still observed. The expanding availability of multiple treatment strategies has increased the importance of skilled individualized outcome prediction for patients. Several prognostic factors are available in RCC including anatomical, histological, clinical and molecular ones, but none of them is very precise, when used alone. Therefore increasing number of prognostic systems has been created in local and metastatic disease to increase predictive accuracy. In order to encourage the clinicians to use the available models in their routine practice, we tried to select the most relevant ones and include them in a simple algorithm to be used in common clinical scenarios throughout entire history of the disease in patients with RCC

  • 1. Bedke J, Buse S, Pritsch M, et al. Perinephric and renal sinus fat infiltration in pT3a renal cell carcinoma: possible prognostic differences // BJU International, 2009; 103(10):1349-1354

  • 2. Cheville JC, Lohse CM, Zincke H, et al. Comparisons of outcome and prognostic features among histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma // Am J Surg Pathol, 2003; 27:612-624

  • 3. Choueiri TK, Garcia JA, Elson P, et al. Clinical factors associated with outcome in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy // Cancer, 2007; 110:543-550

  • 4. Culp SH, Tannir NM, Abel EJ, et al. Can we better select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma for cytoreductive nephrectomy? // Cancer, 2010; 116:3378-3388

  • 5. de Reijke TM, Bellmunt J, van Poppel H, et al. EORTC-GU group expert opinion on metastatic renal cell cancer // Eur J Cancer, 2009; 45:765-773

  • 6. Eggener SE, Yossepowitch O, Pettus JA, et al. Renal cell carcinoma recurrence after nephrectomy for localized disease: predicting survival from time of recurrence // J Clin Oncol, 2006; 24(19):3101-3106

  • 7. Elson PJ, Witte RS, Trump DL. Prognostic factors for survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma // Cancer Res, 1988; 48:7310-7313

  • 8. Escudier B, Choueiri TK, Oudard S, et al. Prognostic factors of metastatic renal cell carcinoma after failure of immunotherapy: new paradigm from a large phase III trial with shark cartilage extract AE 941 // J Urol, 2007; 178:1901-1905

  • 9. Escudier B, Kataja V; ESMO Guidelines Working Group. Renal cell carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up // Ann Oncol, 2010; 21(5):137-139

  • 10. European Cancer Observatory (ECO) //

  • 11. Finley DS, Pantuck AJ, Belldegrun AS. Tumor biology and prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma // Oncologist, 2011; 16(2):4-13

  • 12. Flanigan RC, Salmon SE, Blumenstain BA, et al. Nephrectomy followed by interferon alfa-2b compared with interferon alfa-2b alone for metastatic renal-cell cancer // N Engl J Med, 2001; 345:1655

  • 13. Frank I, Blute ML, Cheville JC, et al. An outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radical nephrectomy based on tumor stage, size, grade and necrosis: the SSIGN score // J Urol, 2002; 168:2395-2400

  • 14. Heng DY, Xie W, Regan MM, et al. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents: results from a large, multicenter study // J Clin Oncol, 2009; 27:5794

  • 15. Hudes G, Carducci M, Tomczk P, et al. Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal‐cell carcinoma // N Engl J Med, 2007; 356, 2271-2281

  • 16. Ii mura Y, Saito K, Fujii Y, et al. Development and external validation of a new outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with nephrectomy based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein and TNM classification: the TNM-C score // J Urol, 2009; 181(3):1004-1012

  • 17. Is barn H, Karakiewicz PI. Predicting cancer-control outcomes in patients with renal cell carcinoma // Curr Opin Urol, 2009; 19(3):247-257

  • 18. Je ldres C, Karakiewicz PI, Suardi N, et al. Conditional survival predictions after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma // J Urol, 2009; 182(6):2607-2612

  • 19. Je ppesen AN, Jensen HK, Donskov F, et al. Hyponatremia as a prognostic and predictive factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma // Br J Cancer, 2010; 102:867

  • 20. Ka volius JP, Mastorakos DP, Pavlovich C, et al. Resection of metastatic renal cell carcinoma // J Clin Oncol, 1998; 16:2261-2266

  • 21. Ki m HL, Belldegrun AS, Freitas DG, et al. A Paraneoplastic signs and symptoms of renal cell carcinoma: implications for prognosis // J Urol, 2003; 170:1742-1746

  • 22. Kim HL, Seligson D, Liu X, et al. Using tumor markers to predict the survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma // J Urol, 2005; 173(5):1496-1501

  • 23. Kuti kov A, Egleston BL, et al. Evaluating overall survival and competing risks of death in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma using a comprehensive nomogram // J Clin Oncol, 2010; 28(2):311-317

  • 24. Kuti kov A, Smaldone MC, Egleston, et al. Anatomic features of enhancing renal masses predict malignant and high-grade pathology: a preoperative nomogram using the RENAL Nephrometry score // Eur Urol, 2011; 60(2):241-248

  • 25. Lee CT, Katz J, Fearn PA, et al. Mode of presentation of renal cell carcinoma provides prognostic information // Urol Oncol, 2002; 7:135-140

  • 26. Lee LS, Tan MH. Predictive models for the practical management of renal cell carcinoma// Nat Rev Urol, 2012; 9(2):73-84

  • 27. Leib ovich BC, Cheville JC, Lohse CM, et al. A scoring algorithm to predict survival for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a stratification tool for prospective clinical trials // J Urol, 2005; 174:1759-176328. Ljun gberg B, Cowan NC B, Cowan NC, et al. EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: the 2010 update // Eur Urol, 2010; 58:398-406

  • 29. Mano la J, Royston P, Elson P, et al. Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group // Clin Cancer Res, 2011; 17(16):5443-5450

  • 30. Moch H, Gasser T, Amin MB, et al. Prognostic utility of the recently recommended histologic classification and revised TNM staging system of renal cell carcinoma: a Swiss experience with 588 tumors // Cancer, 2000; 89:604-614

  • 31. Motz er RJ, Agarwal N, Beard C, et al. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: kidney cancer. Version 2.2012 // J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 2009; 7:618-30

  • 32. Motz er RJ, Bacik J, Mazumdar M. Prognostic factors for survival of patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma: Memorial Sloan - Kettering Cancer Center experience // Clin Cancer Res, 2004; 10:6302-6303

  • 33. Motz er RJ, Bacik J, Murphy BA, et al. Interferon- alfa as a comparative treatment for clinical trials of new therapies against advanced renal cell carcinoma // J Clin Oncol, 2002; 20:289-296

  • 34. Motz er RJ, Bukowski RM, Figlin, et al. Prognostic nomogram for sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma // Cancer, 2008; 113:1552-1558

  • 35. Negr ier S, Gomez F, Douillard JY, et al. Prognostic factors of response or failure of treatment in patients with metastatic renal carcinomas treated by cytokines: a report from the Groupe Francais d’Immunotherapie // World J Urol, 2005; 23:161-165

  • 36. Park er AS, Leibovich BC, Lohse CM, et al. Development and evaluation of BioScore: A biomarker panel to enhance prognostic algorithms for clear cell renal cell carcinoma // Cancer, 2009; 115:2092-2103

  • 37. Sorb ellini M, Kattan MW, Snyder M, et al. A postoperative prognostic nomogram predicting recurrence for patients with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma // J Urol, 2005; 173:48-51

  • 38. Sun M, Shariat SF, Cheng C, et al. Prognostic factors and predictive models in renal cell carcinoma: a contemporary review// Eur Urol, 2011; 60(4):644-661

  • 39. Tan MH, Choong CV, Chia KS, et al. The Karakiewicz nomogram is the most useful clinical predictor for survival outcomes in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma // Cancer, 2011; 117:5314-5324

  • 40. Tang PA, Vickers MM, Heng DY, Heng YC. Clinical and molecular prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma: what we know so far // Hematol Oncol Clin North Am, 2011; 25(4):871-891

  • 41. Tapp er H, Klein H, Rubenstein W, et al. Recurrent renal cell carcinoma after 45 years // Clin Imaging, 1997; 21(4):273-275

  • 42. Terr one C, Cracco F, Porpiglia F, et al. Reassessing the current TNM lymph node staging for renal cell carcinoma // Eur Urol, 2006; 49(2):324-31.

  • 43. Volpe A, Patard JJ. Prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma // World J Urol, 2010; 28(3):319-327

  • 44. Wu Y, Fu X, Xiaoli Z, et al. Prognostic role of systemic inflammatory response in renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis // J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2011; 137(5):887-896

  • 45. Zisman A, Pantuck AJ, Wieder J, et al. Risk group assessment and clinical outcome algorithm to predict the natural history of patients with surgically resected renal cell carcinoma // J Clin Oncol, 2002; 20:4559-4566

Acta Chirurgica Latviensis

The Journal of Riga Stradins University; Latvian Association of Surgeons; Latvian Association of Paediatric Surgeons

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 9 9 9
PDF Downloads 2 2 2