Introduction. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffolds have become an alternative to autologous bone grafts in orthopedic surgery, because it is possible to fill larger scale bone defects and of the decreased operation time and complication risks at the graft donor site, a promising method in bone regeneration is to load bone marrow - mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) on to a HAp scaffold.
Aim of the Study. The aim of our study is to compare subcutaneous tissue reaction of experimental animals to implantation of HAp and HAp that is coated with BM-MSCs.
Materials and Methods. Autologous BM-MSCs were cultivated from crista iliaca dextra biopsy, 4 HAp ceramic implants were coated with BM-MSC and implanted in subcutaneous tissue on one side and non-coated HAp implants on the other side of the spine of 4 rabbits. Immunohistochemical staining of BM-MSC and connective tissue included TUNEL assay, NFkBp105, HSP 70k, Wnt1, TNF-α, VEGF, MMP-2 antibodies, microscoped at 400X magnification and analyzed semiquantitatively.
Results. Routine staining with haemotoxilin and eosin demonstrated formation of granulation tissue around the HAp implant, which was more distinct on the control side. There was an increased number of NFκB p105 positive cells (fibroblasts, myocytes, endotheliocytes) on the experimental side (+++), in comparison to the control side (++). HSP70 and apoptosis index was decreased on the experimental side (++ and 60%), in comparison to the control side (+++ and 70%). Number of MMP2 positive structures was increased on the control side in the fibrous capsule (++), in comparison to the experimental side, where the result varied (0 - +)
Conclusions. Cultured BM-MSC activity is partly limited due to the apoptosis, which is probably induced by environmental factors. BM-MSC coated HAp implant stimulates secretion of proliferation marker NFkBp105 in subcutaneous tissue, decreases cell stress, apoptosis and tissue degradation (decreased HSP 70, apoptotic cell count and MMP 2) to improve the local tissue quality and proving BM-MSC tissue protective effect
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