Geographic Information System (GIS) as a Tool in the Epidemiological Assessment of Wetwood Disease on Elm Trees in Tabriz City, Iran

Open access


Plants disease epidemiology provides us with some information about the spread of diseases in different regions with various climates and helps us conduct suitable managing operations and predictions about the spread of disease to other areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) has been widely used as an important tool in epidemiological studies. Wetwood disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases on elm trees found in the Northwest of Iran. The disease has spread in different regions of Tabriz (located in the Northwest of Iran), which has become terribly epidemic. Geographic Information System as an appropriate tool in epidemiological examination of plant disease is useful in various ways. In this study, the epidemiology of bacterial wetwood disease on elm trees in Tabriz was investigated using GIS databases. The results indicate that the disease has become epidemic in different areas of Tabriz. According to the results, although the disease was not found in some regions, its severity was very high in some other areas. Based on the distribution map, the wetwood disease most highly exists in the central regions and some parts of the northern regions of the city, but eastern regions are least affected.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Agrios G.N. (2005). Plant pathology. 5th. Elsevier Acad. Press. Burlington. Mass EU pp. 251-262.

  • Azahar T.M. Mustapha J.C. Mazliham S. & Boursier P. (2011). Temporal analysis of basal stem rot disease in oil palm plantations: an analysis on peat soil. IJET 11(3): 96-101.

  • Blumenthal U.J. Fleisher J.M. Esrey S.A. & Peasey A. (2001). Epidemiology - a tool for the assessment of risk. Water Quality: Guidelines Standards & Health Assessment of Risk and Risk Management for Water-Related Infectious Disease. IWA Publishing London pp. 135-160.

  • Campbell C.L. & Madden L.V. (1990). Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. John Wiley and Sons New York.

  • Carter C.J. (1945). Wetwood of elms. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin. v. 023 no. 04.

  • Chang K. (2016). Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 8th Edition. McGraw-Hill U.S.A.

  • Clarke K.C. Mc-Lafferty S.L. & Tempalski B.J. (1996). On epidemiology and geographic information systems: a review and discussion of future directions. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2(2): 85.

  • Ghahrooditali M. & Babaefini O. (2014). Introduction to geographic information systems. 4th Edition. Payame Noor University Tehran.

  • Hillis W.E. (1977). Secondary changes in wood. In: The Structure Biosynthesis and Degradation of Wood. F.A. Loewus & V. C. Runeckles Eds.) pp. 247-309.

  • Hosseinzadeh D.R. & Bidkhory A.R. (2013). Fundamental of GIS and ArcGIS. 4th Edition Jihade Daneshgahi Mashhad.

  • Iraqi M.M. Rahnama K. Mostafa M. & Marandi M. (2008). Investigation on isolates of fungus the causal agent of Dutch elm disease in some areas of Golestan province and their pathogenesis effect on Ulmus species. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 15(4): 186-194.

  • Jaime-Garcia R. Orum T.V. Felix-Gastelum R. Trinidad-Correa R. Vanetten H.D. & Nelson M.R. (2001). Spatial analysis of Phytophthora infestans genotypes and late blight severity on tomato and potato in the Del Fuerte Valley using geostatistics and geographic information systems. Phytopath. 91(12): 1156-1165.

  • Jaime-Garcia R. & Cotty P.J. (2006). Spatial relationships of soil texture and crop rotation to Aspergillus flavus community structure in South Texas. Phytopath. 96(6): 599-607.

  • Jebara K.B. (2007). The role of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the control and prevention of animal diseases. Conf. OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) Paris pp. 175-183.

  • Longley P.A. Goodchild M. Maguire D.J. & Rhind D.W. (2011). Geographic Information Systems and Science. 3th Edition Wiley U.S.A.

  • Mohan S.K. Colt W.M. & Barney D.L. (1990). Bacterial wetwood and slime flux of trees. Technical sheet of University of Idaho.

  • Murdoch C.W. & Campana R.J. (1983). Bacterial species associated with wetwood of elm. Phytopath. 73: 1270-1273.

  • Nelson M.R. Orum T.V. Jaime-Garcia R. & Nadeem A. (1999). Applications of Geographic Information Systems and geostatistics in plant disease epidemiology and management. Plant Dis. 83(4):308-319.

  • Nutter F.W. Jr. Wegulo S.N. & Martinson C.A. (1995). Use of geographic information systems to generate disease prevalence incidence and severity maps for seed corn production in 1992. Phytopath. 85: 1173.

  • Orum T.V. Bigelow D.M. Nelson M.R. Howell D.R. & Cotty P.J. (1997). Spatial and temporal patterns of Aspergillus flavus strain composition and propagule density in Yuma County Arizona oils. Plant Dis. 81: 911-916.

  • Santini A. Fagnani A. Ferrini F. & Mittempergher L. (2002). San Zambian ‘Plinio’ elm trees. HortScience 37(7): 1139-1141.

  • Sobiczewski P. (2008). Bacterial diseases of plants: epidemiology diagnostics and control. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 95(3): 151-157.

  • Star J. & Estes J. (1990). Geographic Information Systems. University of California. Santa Barbara-EEUU. 295 p.

  • Stipes R.J. & Campana R.J. (1981). Compendium of elm diseases. American Phytopathological Society.

  • Taliei F. Safaie N. & Aghajani M.A. (2013). Spatial distribution of Macrophomina phaseolina and soybean charcoal rot incidence using Geographic Information System (A case study in Northern Iran) JAST 15: 1523-1536.

  • Thomas C.S. Skinner P.W. Fox A.D. Greer C.A. & Gubler W.D. (2002). Utilization of GIS/GPS-based information technology in commercial crop decision making in California Washington Oregon Idaho and Arizona. J. Nematol. 34(3): 200-206.

  • Ward J.C. (1972). Anaerobic bacteria associated with honeycomb and ring failure in red and black oak lumber. Phytopath. 62(7): 796-796.

  • Yau P. (1994). City of Melbourne's approach to elm tree management (Pyrrhalta luteola; Victoria). (Symposium paper). Plant Protection Quarterly (Australia).

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 373 171 3
PDF Downloads 176 105 3