The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of four maize varieties to different simulated watering regimes in term of proline, starch and soluble sugar contents as well as relative water content. Maize seeds were planted in 64 plastic pots of 20 litre capacity, arranged in a factorial fitted in completely randomized design (CRD), with four replications in the screen house of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T), Moor Plantation Ibadan. The watering was done based on the designated field capacities (FC) of 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Fresh leaf samples were collected five weeks after planting and at the end of each stress period. The proline, soluble sugar, leaf starch and the relative water contents in the leaves were estimated. The results obtained showed that watering regime significantly influenced the leaf starch, soluble sugar, proline and relative water contents. The varieties also differ significantly in the proline, soluble sugar content, leaf starch and the relative water contents. Watering regime and variety interaction was significant for soluble sugar, starch, proline and the relative water content. Highest soluble sugar of 1.28 mg/g and proline of 35.70 μmol/g FW were obtained when FC was 25% and lowest when watering level was optimum. The starch and relative water contents were optimum under full watering (100% FC) and lowest when field capacity was 25%. Variations were observed with regards to different maize varieties. ART98SW6-OB accumulated the highest quantity of soluble sugar and proline under 25 and 50% field capacities alongside DTESYN, which is a drought tolerant maize variety. It could be concluded that water stress increased production of soluble sugar and proline, while water availability increases relative water content and favors starch accumulation. The consideration of these metabolites alongside other physiological features is a very fast and reliable method for drought tolerant plant selection even at the plant seedling growth stage.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ahamadizadeh M. Valizadeh M. Shahbazi H. Nori A. 2012 - Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11: 1912-1923.
Al Hakimi A. Monneveux P. Galiba G. 1995 - Soluble sugars proline and relative water content (RWC) as traits for improving drought tolerance and divergent selection for RWC from T. polonicum into T. durum. J. Genet. Breed 49: 237-244.
Barr H.D. Weatherley P.E. 1962 - A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficit in leaves. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 15:413-428.
Buitink J. Claessens M.M.A.E. Hemminga M.A. Hoekstra F.A. 1998 - Influence of water content and temperature on molecular mobility and intracellular glasses in seeds and pollen. Plant Physiol. 118: 531-541.
Boggess S.F. Stewart C.R. Aspinall D. Paleg L.G. 1976 - Effect of water stress on proline synthesis from radioactive precursors. Plant physiol. 58(3):398-401.
Doulis A. 1994 - Antioxidant responses of pea (Pisum sativum L.) protoplasts Ph.D. dissertation. PPWS Virginia Tech.
Farooq M. Wahid A. Kobayashi N. Fujita D. Basra S.M.A. 2009 - Plant drought stress: effects mechanisms and management Agron. Sustain. Dev. 29: 185-212.
Fischer C. Höll W. 1991 - Food reserves in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). I. Seasonal changes in the carbohydrate and fat reserves of pine needles. Trees 5(4): 187-195.
Hsiao T.C. 1973a - Plant responses to water stress Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24 519-570.
Hoekstra F.A. Golovina E.A. Buitink J. 2001 - Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 8: 431-438.
Irigoyen J.J. Emerich D.W. Sanchez-Diaz M. 1992 - Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. Physiol. Plant. 84: 55-60.
Izanloo A. Condon A.G. Langridge P. Tester M. Schnurbusch T. 2008 - Different mechanisms of adaptation to cyclic water stress in two South Australian bread wheat cultivars. J. Exp. Bot. 9 (12): 3327-3346.
Jones M.M. Osmond C.B. Turner N.C. 1981 - Accumulation of solutes in leaves of sorghum and sunflower in response to water deficits. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 7: 193-205.
Kramer P.J. Boyer J.S. 1983 - Water relations of plants and soils. Academic Press New York USA.
Larher F. Leport L. Petrivalsky M. Chappart M. 1993 - Effectors for the osmoinduced proline response in higher plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 31: 911-922.
Lawlor D.W. Fock H.P. 1977 - Water stress induced changes in the amounts of some photosynthetic products and respiratory metabolites of sunflower leaves. J. Exp. Bot. 18 329-337.
Leopold A.C. Sun W.Q. Bernal-Lugo L. 1994 - The glassy state in seeds: analysis and function. Seed Sci. Res. 4: 267-274.
McCue K.F. Hanson A.D. 1990 - Drought and salt tolerance: towards understanding and application. Trends Biotech 8: 358-362.
Mckersie B.D. Leshem Y.Y. 1994 - Stress and stress coping in cultivated plants. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Munns R. Brady C.J. Barlow E.W.R. 1979 - Solute accumulation in the apex and leaves of wheat during Water-stress Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 6 379-389.
Munns R. Weir R. 1981 - Contribution of sugars to osmotic adjustment in elongating and expanded zone of wheat leaves during moderate water deficits at two light levels. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 8 93-105
Nayer M. Reza H. 2008 - Drought-induced accumulation of soluble sugars and proline in two maize varieties. World Appl. Sci. J. 3 (3): 448-453 IDOSI Publications.
Nazarli H. Faraji F. 2011 - Response of proline soluble sugars and antioxidant enzymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to different irrigation regimes in greenhouse condition Vol. XLIV (148) 4: 27-33.
Prado F.E. Boero C. Gallardo M. Gonzalez J.A. 2000 - Effect of NaCl on germination growth and soluble sugar content in Chenopodium quinoa willd seeds. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 41: 27-34.
Paquin R. Lechasseur P. 1979 - Observations sur une méthode de dosage de la praline libre dans les extraits de plantes Can. J. Bot. 57:1851-1854.
Patakas A. Noitsakis B. 2001 - Leaf age effects on solute accumulation in water-stress grapevines. Plant Physiol. 158: 63-69.
Rhodes D. Handa S. Bressan R.A. 1986 - Metabolic changes associated with adaptation of plant cells to water stress. Plant Physiol. 82(4): 890-903.
Sanchez F.J. Manzanares M. Andres E.F. Tenorio J.L. Ayerbe L. 1998 - Turgor maintenance osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crop Research 59: 225-235.
Stewart C.R. Boggess S.F. Aspinall D. Paleg L.G. 1977 - Inhibition of proline oxidation by water stress. Plant Physiol. 59: 930-932.
Samaras Y. Bressan R.A. Csonka L.N. García-Ríos M.G. Paino D’Urzo M. Rhodes D. 1995 - Proline accumulation during water deficit. In: Smirnoff N. (Ed.) Environment and plant metabolism. Flexibility and acclimation. Oxford: Bios Scientific Publishers.
Thakur P.S. Rai. V.K. 1980 - Water stress effects on maize: carbohydrate metabolism of resistant and susceptible cultivars of Zea mays L. Biol. Plant. 12 50-56.
Thayumanavan B. Sadasivam S.1984 - Physicochemical basis for the preferential uses of certain rice varieties. Qual. Plant Foods. Hum. Nutr. 34: 253-257.
Verslues P.E. Sharp R.E. 1999 - Proline accumulation in maize primary roots at low water potentials. II Metabolic source of increased proline deposition in the elongation zone. Plant Physiol. 119: 1349-1360.
Wang Z.B. Quebedeaux G.W. Stutte G.W. 1996 - Partitioning of (14C) glucose into sorbitol and other carbohydrates in apple under water stress. Aus. J. Plant Physiol. 23(3): 245-251.
Watson B.T. Wardlaw I.F. 1981 - Metabolism and export of 14Clabelled photosynthate from water-stressed leaves. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 8:143-153.
Yancey P.H. Clark M.E. Hand S.C. Bowlus R.D. Somero G.N. 1982 - Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte system. Science 217: 1214-1222.