Planning for resilience in the case of power shortage: The Swedish STYREL policy

Open access

Abstract

Modern society has developed a growing dependence on electricity in order to carry out important societal functions. This implies the risk of cascading failures to society in the case of power shortage. The creation of a resilient and sustainable power energy system is therefore crucial. Equal crucial is the preparedness for the event of power shortage. As a part of the Swedish crisis management system, the Swedish Energy Agency (EM) has developed a planning system, STYREL, to identify social important objects in order to ensure important social functions in the case of power shortage. This article examines STYREL as a policy network and as a planning system to ensure a sustainable and resilient power supply. The study focus on the design of the system, the implementation of the system based on the results from the two rounds completed in 2010 and 2014. Using interviews with coordinators at the local and regional level in three counties and a survey including all 21 coordinators at the regional level, it indicates that the design of the planning system reviles opportunities for improvements of the planning system. The study also indicates that the coordinators at the local level lack trust in the planning system depending on both the lack of resource and the lack of feedback. This in turn indicates challenges for the system from a resilient and sustainability point of view.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bach C. Bouchon S. Fekete A. Birkmann J. & Serre D. (2013). Adding value to critical infrastructure research and disaster risk management: the resilience concept. SAPI EN. S. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society (6.1).

  • Boin Arjen Louise K. Comfort and Chris C. Demchak. “The rise of resilience.” Designing resilience: Preparing for extreme events (2010): 1-12.

  • Boin A. & McConnell A. (2007). Preparing for critical infrastructure breakdowns: the limits of crisis management and the need for resilience. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 15(1) 50-59.

  • Brundtland G. H. & Hägerhäll B. (1988). Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development under the chairmanship of Gro Harlem Brundtland. Prisma.

  • Carlsson L. (2000). ‘Policy networks as collective action’. Policy studies journal 28(3) 502-520.

  • Cohen F. (2010) “What makes critical infrastructures Critical?” International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection Vol. 3 No. 2 pp. 53–54.

  • EM 2006. Stormen Gudrun. Vad kan vi lära av naturkatastrofen 2005? [Storm Gudrun. What can we learn from the natural disaster of 2005?] ET2006:02.

  • EM 2007. Utvärdering av stormen Per – aktörsvisa sammanställningar av intervjuer och analyser [Evaluation of Storm Per - actor-based summaries of interviews and analyses]. ER 2007:37.

  • EM 2010. Styrel: Prioritering av elanvändare vid elbrist. Slutrapport från Energimyndighetens Styrel-projekt åren 2008-2009 [Styrel: Prioritisation of electricity users during an electricity shortage. Final report from the EM’s Styrel project 2008-2009]. ER 2010:15

  • EM 2012. Slutrapport från Energimyndighetens Styrel-projekt [Final report from the Swedish Energy Agency’s Styrel project]: ER 2012:04 73 pp.

  • EM 2014. Styrel: Handbok för Styrels planeringsomgång 2014–2015 [Styrel: Handbook for Styrel’s 2014-2015 round of planning]. ET2013:23 62 pp.

  • Enander A. Hede S. & Lajksjö Ö. (2015). ’Why worry? Motivation for crisis preparedness work among municipal leaders in Sweden’. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 23(1) 1-10.

  • Fell A. (2008) Nätverksstyrning för en hållbar utveckling: en fallstudie av Energimyndighetens program Uthållig kommun 2003-2007 [Network Governance for sustainable development: a case study of the Swedish Energy Agency’s program Sustainable Municipality 2003-2007]. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology

  • FOI 2013. Elnätsföretagens MFK-planering. En studie av elnätsföretagens möjligheter att genomföra manuell förbrukningsfrånkoppling baserad på Styrel [The power companies’ MFK planning. A study of the power companies’ possibilities to perform manual consumption disconnection based on Styrel]. FOI-R—3797.

  • Folke C. Carpenter S. Elmqvist T. Gunderson L. Holling C. S. & Walker B. (2002). ‘Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations’ AMBIO: A journal of the human environment 31(5) 437-440.

  • Ghanem D.A. Mander S. and Gough C. (2016) ““I think we need to get a better generator”. Household resilience to disruption to power supply during storm events” Energy Policy Vol. 92 pp. 171–180.

  • Groβe C. & Olausson P.M. (2018) Multi-Level Planning Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection: Planning for Power Shortage in Germany Sweden and USA. Paper presented at MPSA conference Chicago.

  • Groβe C. & Olausson P.M. (2018) Swedish Multi-Level Planning System for Critical Infrastructure Protection: The Regional Core. ESREL 2018.

  • Groβe C. Olausson P.M. Larsson A. Björkqvist O. Danielsson E. Wallman-Lundåsen S. Nyhlén J. (forthcoming). Perspectives on Collaboration and Decision-making in Response Planning to Power Shortage: A Critical Discourse of the Swedish Policy.

  • Gustavsson E. (2008) Mellan det lokala och det globala: klimat kommuner nätverk [Between the local and the global: climate municipalities networks]. Diss. Örebro. Örebro University Press.

  • Handmer J. W. & Dovers S. R. (1996). A typology of resilience: rethinking institutions for sustainable development. Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly9(4) 482-511.

  • Holling C.S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 4 1973: 1–23.

  • IPCC 2001: Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to The Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  • Johansson V. (2015) ‘Johansson V. (2015). ‘Policy networks—A threat to procedural and expert-based decision making and the quality of public risk decisions?’ International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection 9 3-12.

  • Kendra J. M. & Wachtendorf T. (2003). Elements of resilience after the world trade center disaster: reconstituting New York City’s Emergency Operations Centre. Disasters 27(1) 37-53.

  • Khailani D.K. and Perera R.. ‘Mainstreaming disaster resilience attributes in local development plans for the adaptation to climate change induced flooding: A study based on the local plan of Shah Alam City Malaysia’ Land Use Policy 30.1 (2013): 615-627.

  • Klein R. J. Nicholls R. J. & Thomalla F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: How useful is this concept? Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 5(1-2) 35-45.

  • Lidén G. Nyhlén J. & Nyhlén S. (2015) ‘Forced cooperation from above: the case of Sweden’s Establishment reform’ Policy Studies Vol. 37 No. 3 pp. 468-486

  • Länsstyrelsen i Blekinge (2009) Styrel Slutrapport Länsförsök Blekinge [County Administrative Board of Blekinge (2009) Styrel Final Report County Trial Blekinge] 20090924 Karlskrona.

  • Miles L. and Petridou E. (2015). Entrepreneurial Resilience: Role of Policy Entrepreneurship in the Political Perspective of Crisis Management. In R. Bhamra (Ed.) Organisational Resilience: Concepts Integration and Practice (pp. 67-81). Boca Raton FL: CRC Press.

  • Manyena S. B. (2006). The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters 30(4) 434-450.

  • MSB (2015) Gemensamma grunder för samverkan och ledning vid samhällsstörningar Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap [Common grounds for collaboration and management during disruptions to society The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency] (MSB) Karlstad.

  • Olausson P. M. & Nyhlén J. (2017). Organization and Decision-Making in Enforced Networks: The River Groups in Northern Sweden. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management.

  • Palm J. & Thoresson J. (2014). Strategies and implications for network participation in regional climate and energy planning. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 16(1) 3-19.

  • Petridou E. & Olausson P.M (2016). Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Transfer: Flood Risk Governance in Northern Sweden. Central European Journal on Public Policy 2017; 11(1).

  • Rhinard M. & Sundelius B. (2010). The limits of self-reliance: International cooperation as a source of resilience. Designing resilience: Preparing for extreme events 196-219.

  • Rhodes R. A. W. (1996) The New Governance: Governing without Government in Political Studies Vol. 44 No 4 pp. 652—667.

  • Rhodes R. A. W. (1997) Understanding Governance: Policy Networks Governance Reflexivity and Accountability in Administrative Theory & Praxis Vol. 20 No. 3 (Sep. 1998) pp. 394-396

  • Rose A. (2007). Economic resilience to natural and man-made disasters: Multidisciplinary origins and contextual dimensions. Environmental Hazards 7(4) 383-398.

  • Sørensen E. & Torfing J. (2005). ‘The democratic anchorage of governance networks’ Scandinavian political studies 28(3) 195-218.

  • Sørensen E. and Torfing J. (2007) Theories of democratic network governance. Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Storbjörk Sofie (2006) Klimatanpassning i Sverige: Drivkrafter och utmaningar för riskhantering och fysisk planering [Climate adaptation in Sweden: Driving forces and challenges for risk management and physical planning]. Linköping: Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research

  • SvK Svenska Kraftnät 2016. The electricity balance in the Swedish power market during the winters of 2015/2016 and 2016/2016 (in Swedish) (No. 2016/1129). Sundbyberg.

  • Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (2010) Styrel - inriktning för prioritering av elanvändare [Styrel - orientation for prioritisation of electricity users].

  • Torfing J. (2005). ‘Governance network theory: towards a second generation’ European political science 4(3) 305-315.

  • Wildavsky A. (1991) Searching for Safety. Transaction New Brunswick NJ.

  • Wimelius M. E. & Engberg J. (2015). ’Crisis Management through Network Coordination: Experiences of Swedish Civil Defence Directors’. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 23(3) 129-137

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.50

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.156
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.430

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 79 79 27
PDF Downloads 55 55 33