Distribution of resources is at the core of politics. Although this activity is primarily economic in nature, the existing research shows that political representatives often use the allocation of public money to reward their allies at the expense of their rivals. This paper analyses a 2015 governmental programme of local sport grants in Slovakia that aimed to build sport facilities for children and young people. In order to avoid any political bias, the programme was established as a neutral mechanism with an anonymous evaluation of grant requests. The results of analysis, however, provide substantial evidence that the subsidies were given primarily to towns with closer political ties to the government while municipalities led by mayors from the opposition were nearly fully ignored. In addition, the presented social and economic aims of the funding programme were not effectively pursued. The paper thus represents a valuable contribution to the discussion of distributive politics, in general, as it shows that, despite the respective legal framework, the allocation of resources may still end up as a process fuelled by partisan interests.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ames B. (1995). Electoral Rules Constituency Pressures and Pork Barrel: Bases of Voting in the Brazilian Congress. The Journal of Politics 57(2) pp. 324-343.
Ansolabehere S. & Snyder J. M. (2006). Party Control of State Government and the Distribution of Public Expenditures. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 108(4) pp. 547-569.
Boex J. & Martinez-Vazquez J. (2005). The Determinants of the Incidence of Intergovernmental Grants: A Survey of the International Experience. Working Paper 06-52 Retrieved from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=902454 [Accessed 10 November 2015].
Bullock C. S. & Hood M. V. (2005). When Southern Symbolism Meets the Pork Barrel: Opportunity for Executive Leadership. Social Science Quarterly 86(1) pp. 69-86.
Considine J. Crowley F. Folley S. & O’Connor M. (2008). Irish National Lottery Sports Capital Grant Allocations 1999-2007: Natural Experiments on Political Influence. Economic Affairs 28(3) pp. 38-44.
Costa-I-Font J. Rodriguez-Orregia E. & Lunapla D. (2003). Political competition and pork-barrel politics in the allocation of public investment in Mexico. Public Choice 116(1-2) pp. 185-204.
Del Rossi A. F. (1995). The politics and economics of pork barrel spending: The case of federal financing of water resources development. Public Choice 85(3-4) pp. 285-305.
Denemark D. (2000). Partisan Pork Barrel in Parliamentary Systems: Australian Constituency-Level Grants. The Journal of Politics 62(3) pp. 896-915.
Evans D. (2004). Greasing the Wheels. Using Pork Barrel Projects to Build Majority Coalitions in Congress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gaunt C. (1999). Sports Grants and the Political Pork Barrel: An Investigation of Political Bias in the Administration of Australian Sports Grants. Australian Journal of Political Science 34(1) pp. 63-74.
Golden M. A. & Picci L. (2008). Pork-Barrel Politics in Postwar Italy 1953-94. American Journal of Political Science 52(2) pp. 268-289.
Hazakis K. J. & Ioannidis P. G. (2014). The impact of the local government institutional framework on the distribution of intergovern-mental grants: Greek Republic as a case study. European Journal of Spatial Development Retrieved from: http://www.nordregio.se/Global/EJSD/Refereed%20articles/refereed55.pdf [Accessed 10 November 2015].
Hoare A. G. (1992). Transport investment and the political pork barrel: a review and the case of Nelson New Zealand. Transport Reviews 12(2) pp. 133-151.
Khemani S. (2003). Partisan Politics and Intergovernmental Transfers in India. Policy research working paper 3016. Retrieved from: http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/abs/10.1596/1813-9450-3016 [Accessed 10 November 2015].
Kopeček L. (2007). Politické strany na Slovensku 1989 až 2006. [Political Parties in Slovakia 1989 - 2006.] Brno: CDK.
Local sport grants program announcement (2015). Retrieved from: http://www.vlada.gov.sk/podpora-rozvoja-sportu-2015/ [Accessed 10 November 2015].
Mesežnikov G. National Populism in Slovakia - Defining the Character of the State and Interpreting Select Historic Events. In Petőcz K. (2009). National Populism and Slovak - Hungarian Relations in Slovakia 2006 -2009 (pp. 39 - 66). Šamorín: Forum Minority Research Institute.
Milligan K. & Smart M. (2005). Regional Grants as Pork Barrel Politics. CESifo Working Paper No. 1453. Retrieved from: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=710903 [Accessed 10 November 2015].
Pavlík M. & de Vries M. S. (2014). The Voucher System as an Alternative for Allocating Sports Grants. Central European Journal of Public Policy 8(2) pp. 4-27.
Pavlík M. & Špaček D. Sport grants and their transparency - the case of information available on web pages of Czech regions. In Špalková D. & Matějová L. (2015). Proceedings of the 19th international Conference Current Trends in public Sector Research (pp. 282-290). Brno: Masaryk University.
Petőcz K. Slovakia since 2004 - National Populism and the Hungarian Issue. In Petőcz K. (2009). National Populism and Slovak - Hungarian Relations in Slovakia 2006 - 2009 (pp. 67 - 98). Šamorín: Forum Minority Research Institute.
Schwartz T. (1994). Representation as agency and the Pork Barrel Paradox. Public Choice 78(1) pp. 3-21.
Shepsle K. A. & Weingast B. R. (1981). Political Preferences for the Pork Barrel: A Generalization. American Journal of Political Science 25(1) pp. 96-111.
Stein R. M. & Bickers K. N. (1994). Congressional Elections and the Pork Barrel. The Journal of Politics 56(2) pp. 377-399.
Suiter J. & O’Malley E. (2014). Yes minister: The impact of decisionmaking rules on geographically targeted particularistic spending. Parliamentary Affairs 67(4) pp. 935-954.
Veiga L. G. & Veiga F. J. (2013). Intergovernmental fiscal transfers as pork barrel. Public Choice 155(3-4) pp. 335-353.