Damage in Concrete and its Detection by Use of Stress-Volumetric Strain Diagram

Open access

Abstract

The reliable determination of the damage degree of concrete in the structure is difficult and not seldom short-term compressive strengths are considered as real strengths of concrete. Because the load history of the construction is generally unknown, we do not know, whether there have been reached values in the vicinity of the peak of the stress-strain diagram. The strength at the sustained or repeated loading would be then significantly lower, as obtained from tests performed on intact samples. The diagnostic of concrete damage is impeded by environmental effects, resulting in the anisotropy of the development of micro cracks. The possibility is pointed out to use the characteristics of the stress volumetric strain diagram for the assessment of the condition of the material, with the perspective of the application for the determination of the residual long-term strength of concrete

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] THE HOLY BIBLE Genesis 3:6.

  • [2] THE HOLY BIBLE Deuteronomy 29:5.

  • [3] ALNAGGAR M. - CUSATIS G. - DI LUZIO G.: Lattice discrete particle modeling (LDPM) of alkali silica reaction (ASR) deterioration of concrete structures. Cement and Concrete Composites 41 (2013) 45-49.

  • [4] BAŽANT Z. P. - BAWEJA S.: Creep and shrinkage prediction model for analysis and design of concrete structures: Model B3. ACI SP-194 American Concrete Institute Farmington Hills Michigan 2000 1-83.

  • [5] BAŽANT Z. P. - KIM J.K. - PANULA L.: Improved prediction model for time-dependent deformations of concrete: Part 1 - Shrinkage. Materials and Structures 24 (1991) 327-345.

  • [6] BAŽANT Z. P. - PANULA L.: Practical prediction of time-dependent deformations of concrete. Part I: Shrinkage. Materials and Structures 11 (1978) 307-316.

  • [7] BELLOVÁ M. et al.: Design of structures for fire resistance according to Eurocodes - calculation. SKSI Bratislava 2010.

  • [8] BELLOVÁ M. et al.: Design of structures for fire resistance according to Eurocodes - theory. SKSI Bratislava 2010.

  • [9] BILČÍK J. - HUDOBA I.: Investigation of concrete structures damaged by cracks. Beton TKS 2 (2002) 46-49.

  • [10] BINAL A.: The determination of gel swelling pressure of reactive aggregates by ASGPM device and a new reactive-innocuous aggregate decision chart. Construction and Building Materials 22 (2008) 1-13.

  • [11] DUNANT C. F. - SCRIVENER K. L.: Effects of uniaxial stress on alkali-silica reaction induced expansion of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research 42 (2012) 567-576.

  • [12] FECKO L.: Deflection extrapolation of reinforced concrete elements under sustained load. Stavebnícky časopis 23 (1975) 161-173.

  • [13] HANEČKA K.: Deformations of reinforced aerated concrete elements due to bending at sustained loading. Proceedings: Service Life of Load-bearing Structures of Concrete Buildings and Panel Houses. Brno 1975.

  • [14] HERRADOR M. F. - MARTÍNEZ-ABELLA F. - DOPICO J. R. R.: Experimental evaluation of expansive behavior of an old-aged ASR-affected dam concrete: methodology and application. Materials and Structures 41 (2008) 173-188.

  • [15] HOŁA J. - SCHABOWICZ K.: State of the art nondestructive methods for diagnostic testing of building structures - anticipated development trends. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering 10 (2010) 5-18.

  • [16] HRONCOVÁ Z. - MORAVČÍK M. - KOTEŠ P. - KOTULA P.: Concrete structures. EDIS ŽU publishers Žilina 2009.

  • [17] HRONCOVÁ Z. - PITÁK V.: Development of slant crack width of reinforced concrete beams solved by probabilistic method. Proceedings: Theoretical fundamentals of civil engineering Rostov 2006 185-190.

  • [18] IDIART A. E. - LÓPEZ C. M. - CAROL I.: Chemo-mechanical analysis of concrete cracking and degradation due to external sulfate attack: A meso-scale model. Cement and Concrete Composites 33 (2011) 411-423.

  • [19] IRAVANI S. - MAC GREGOR J. G.: High performance concrete under high sustained compressive stresses. University of Alberta Structural Engineering Report No. 200 1994.

  • [20] JANOTKA I. - KRAJČI Ľ.: Accelerated tests of mortar carbonation. Proceedings: 7th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing and Experimental Stress Analysis of Concrete Structures Košice 1998 135-140.

  • [21] JANOTKA I. - KRAJČI Ľ.: Sulphate resistance and passivation ability of the mortar made from pozzolan cement with zeolite. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 94 (2008) 7-14.

  • [22] JENSEN A. D. - CHATTERJI S.: RILEM TC 122-MLC State of the art report on micro-cracking and lifetime of concrete - Part 1. Materials and Structures 29 (1996) 3-8.

  • [23] JERGA J.: Physico-mechanical properties of carbonated concrete. Construction and Building Materials 18 (2004) 645-652.

  • [24] JERGA J.: Identification of rheological processes by their time development. Proceedings: 8th International Conference Faculty of Civil Engineering TU Košice 2007 171-176.

  • [25] JERGA J.: Time development of autogenous and drying shrinkage of cement composite with lightweight aggregate. Building Research Journal 58 (2010) 43-56.

  • [26] JERGA J.: The influence of concrete composition on the time-development of shrinkage. Proceedings: Conference on Design of Concrete Structures and Bridges Using Eurocodes. Bratislava Faculty of Civil Engineering STU 2011 73-82.

  • [27] JERGA J.: Time-development of SFRC shrinkage. Proceedings: New Trends in Statics and Dynamics of Buildings. Faculty of Civil Engineering STU 2011 Bratislava.

  • [28] JERGA J.: Assessment of RC structures by long-term deformation analysis. In: Príprava navrhovanie a realizácia inžinierskych stavieb. Proceedings: International Conference CONECO 2011 STU Bratislava 2011.

  • [29] JERGA J.: Microcracks in concrete and their detection. Civil and Environmental Engineering 8 (2012) 132-144.

  • [30] JERGA J. - KRAJČI Ľ.: Properties of concrete manifested in the stress-volumetric strain diagram. Building Research Journal 60 (2012) - in press.

  • [31] KIANI K. - SHODJA H. M.: Prediction of the penetrated rust into the microcracks of concrete caused by reinforcement corrosion. Applied Mathematical Modelling 35 (2011) 2529-2543.

  • [32] KIANI K. - SHODJA H. M.: Response of reinforced concrete structures to macrocell corrosion of reinforcements. Part II: After propagation of microcracks via a numerical approach. Nuclear Engineering and Design 242 (2012) 7-18.

  • [33] KJELLSEN K. O. - JENNINGS H.M.: Observations of microcracking in cement paste upon drying and rewetting by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Advanced Cement Based Materials 1996 (3) 14-19.

  • [34] KLUSÁČEK L. - BAŽANT Z.: Die Erfahrungen mit den Fundamentverstärkungen von historischen Gebäuden durch umgekehrte (inverse) vorgespannte Gewölbe und Konsolen. Akten von 7. Kolloquium Bauen in Boden und Fels Technische Akademie Esslingen 2010.

  • [35] KLUSÁČEK L. - NEČAS R.: Methodology of repair of cracks in segments made from high performance concrete. Technical Sheets 2007 Part 2: Application of Advanced Materials in Integrated Design of Structures ČVUT Prague 2007.

  • [36] KOTSOVOS M. D.: Fracture processes of concrete under generalised stress states. Materials and Structures 12 (1979) 431-437.

  • [37] KRAJČI Ľ.: Corrosion of steel reinforcement in mortars subjected to aggressive attack of environment. Proceedings: 3rd International Conference on Quality and Reliability in Building Industry Levoča 2003 327-332.

  • [38] KRAJČI Ľ.: Sulfate resistance of zeolite-blended Portland cement. Proceedings: 4th International Conference on Quality and Reliability in Building Industry Levoča 2006 231-236.

  • [39] KRAJČI Ľ. - JANOTKA I.: Measurement techniques for rapid assessment of carbonation in concrete. ACI Materials Journal 97 (2000) 168-171.

  • [40] KRAJČI Ľ. - JANOTKA I.: Effect of curing and sand type on strength pore structure and alkalinity of mortars at accelerated carbonation tests. Proceedings: International Expertcentrum Conference on Failures of Concrete Structures Bratislava 2001 102-107.

  • [41] KRAJČI Ľ. - JANOTKA I.: Degradation of autoclaved aerated concrete at accelerated carbonation attack. Proceedings: 4th International Conference on Concrete and Concrete Structures Žilina 2005 176-183.

  • [42] KRÁLIK J.: Probability nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete containment damage due to high internal overpressure. Proceedings: International Conference on Computing Communications and Control Technologies: CCCr04 Austin Texas 5 (2004) 65-68.

  • [43] KRÁLIK J.: Nonlinear probabilistic analysis of the reinforced concrete structure failure of a nuclear power plant considering degradation effects. Applied Mechanics and Materials 249-250 (2013) 1087-1098.

  • [44] LAJČÁKOVÁ G.: Interaction in the system vehicle - roadway. Proceedings: 2nd International Conference on New Trends in Statics and Dynamics of Buildings Bratislava SR 2003 27-30.

  • [45] MELCER J. - LAJČÁKOVÁ G.: Severe load test of a bridge and its consequences. Proceedings: International Conference on Reliability of Structures. Ostrava 2003 93-96.

  • [46] MODEL CODE 2010 International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) First complete draft March 2010 fib Bulletin 55 and 56.

  • [47] NGAB A.S. - SLATE F. O. - NILSON A. H.: Microcracking and time-dependent strains in high strength concrete. ACI Journal 78 (1981) 262-268.

  • [48] OHTSU M. - UDDIN F. A. K. M.: Mechanism of corrosion - induced cracks in concrete. Concrete Research Letters 2 (2011) 271-274.

  • [49] OWSIAK Z.: Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research 34 (2004) 7-11.

  • [50] PIASTA W. G. - SCHNEIDER U.: Deformations and elastic modulus of concrete under sustained compression and sulphate attack. Cement and Concrete Research 22 (1992) 149-158.

  • [51] PICKETT G.: Effect of aggregate on shrinkage of concrete and hypothesis concerning shrinkage. ACI Journal 27 (1956) 581-590.

  • [52] POINARD C. - MALECOT Y. - DAUDEVILLE L.: Damage of concrete in a very high stress state: experimental investigation. Materials and Structures 43 (2010) 15-29.

  • [53] RICHART F. E. - BRANDTZAEG A. - BROWN R. L.: The failure of plain and spirally reinforced concrete in compression. Bulletin No. 190 University of Illinois Engineering Experimental Station. April 1929.

  • [54] SHAH S.P. - CHANDRA S.: Critical stress volume change and microcracking of concrete. ACI Journal 65 (1968) 770-781.

  • [55] SHAH S. P. - CHANDRA S.: Fracture of concrete subjected to cyclic and sustained loading. ACI Journal 67 (1970) 816-825.

  • [56] SHODJA H. M. - KIANI K. - HASHEMIAN A.: A model for the evolution of concrete deterioration due to reinforcement corrosion. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 52 (2010) 1403-1422.

  • [57] SOROUSHIAN P. - ELZAFRANEY M.: Damage effects on concrete performance and microstructure. Cement and Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 853-859.

  • [58] SRI RAVINDRARAJAH R. - SWAMY R. N.: Load effects on fracture of concrete. Materials and Structures 22 (1989) 15-22.

  • [59] TESAR A.: Load-bearing control of slender bridges. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 62 (2005) 924-936.

  • [60] TESAR A.: The ultimate response of slender bridges subjected to braking forces. Proceedings: 1st International Conference on Railway Technology: Research Development and Maintenance. Las Palmas Spain Paper 4. Civil-Comp Press 2012 1-13.

  • [61] TESAR A.: Special problems of modern bridges: What is now proved was once only imagined. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing 2012 60 pp.

  • [62] TESAR A. - MELCER J.: Structural monitoring in advanced bridge engineering. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 74 (2008) 1670-1678.

  • [63] TIXIER R. - MOBASHER B.: Modeling of damage in cement-based materials subjected to external sulfate attack. I: Formulation. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 15 (2003) 305-313.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 294 158 0
PDF Downloads 96 68 0