From Gamification to Gameful Design and Gameful Experience in Learning

Open access


Learning is a goal driven social activity determined by motivational factors. To be able to efficiently gamify learning for improved student motivation and engagement, the educators have to understand the related aspects studied in games, motivational psychology and pedagogy. This will help them to identify the factors that drive and explain desired learning behaviors. This paper presents a survey of the main approaches employed in gamification and the emerging new directions in the context of the relevant motivational psychology and pedagogy. The focus is on the motivational factors that impact learning and understanding of behavior change. The purpose of the paper is two-fold: on one side, to provide analysis and guide to relevant works related to gamification along with outlining the emerging trends, and on the other, to provide foundation for evaluation and identification of the areas of possible improvements.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Richtel M. Growing Up Digital Wired for Distraction. 20 July 2014.

  • 2. Williams K. C. Williams. Five Key Ingredients for Improving Student Motivation. – Research in Higher Education Journal Vol. 12 2011.

  • 3. Lei S. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Evaluating Benefits and Drawbacks from College Instructors' Perspectives. – Journal of Instructional Psychology Vol. 37 2010 No 2.

  • 4. Deterding S. D. Dixon R. Khaled L. Nacke. From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”. – In: MindTrek Tampere Findland 2011.

  • 5. Huang W. D. Soman. A Practitioner's Guide to Gamification of Education. 10 December 2013.

  • 6. Sinha S. Motivating Students and the Gamification of Learning. – Huffington Post 14 February 2012.

  • 7. McKenzie G. Gamification and Location-Based Services. 2011.

  • 8. Maslow A. H. A Theory of Human Motivation. – Psychological Review Vol. 50 1943 No 370.

  • 9. Pink D. The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us. New York Riverhead 2009.

  • 10. Keller J. Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach. First Ed. New York Springer 2010.

  • 11. Deci E. R. Ryan. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York Plenum Press 1985.

  • 12. Ryan R. E. Deci. Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation Social Development and Well-Being. – American Psychologist Vol. 55 2000 68-78.

  • 13. Deci E. M. Vansteenkiste W. Lens. Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Contents in Self- Determination Theory: Another Look atthe Quality of Academic Motivation. – Educational Psychologist Vol. 1 2006 19-31.

  • 14. Fogg B. A Behavior Model for Persuasive Design. – In: 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology Persuasive'09 CA 2009.

  • 15. Wu M. Gamification 101: The Psychology of Motivation. 2011.

  • 16. Smink S. Applying Persuasive Design in a Diabetes Mellitus Application. 2012.

  • 17. Csikszentmihalyi M. Flow. The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New Yok Harpers Perennial 1990.

  • 18. Nakamura J. M. Csikszentmihalyi. The Concept of Flow. – In: Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press 2002.

  • 19. Cowley B. D. Charles M. Black R. Hickey. Toward an Understanding of Flow in Video Games. – Comp. Entertain Vol. 6 2008 1-27.

  • 20. McGonigal J. Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. New York Penguin 2011.

  • 21. Gale J. A Practical Guide to Health Behaviour Change Using the HCA Approach. Sydney Australia Health Change 2012.

  • 22. Linnenbrink E. P. Pintric h. Multiple Pathways to Learning and Achievement: The Role of Goal Orientation in Fostering Adaptive Motivation Affect and Cognition. – In: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance. New York Academic Press 2000 195-227.

  • 23. Przybylski A. K. C. S. Rigby R. M. Rya n. A Motivational Model of Video Game Engagement. – Review of General Psychology Vol. 14 154-166.

  • 24. How Gamification has Shaped our Attitude towards Failure. Growth Engineering May 2012.

  • 25. Kapp K. M. Games Gamification and the Quest for Learner Engagement. – T+D Vol. 66 2012 No 6 64-68.

  • 26. Nielson B. Gamification Mechanics Versus Gamification Dynamics. Your Tranining Edge 2013.

  • 27. Shneiderman B. Designing for Fun: How Can We Design User Interfaces to be More Fun? – Interactions Vol. 11 2004 No 5 48-50.

  • 28. Reeves B. J. Rea d. Total Engagement: How Games and Virtual Worlds Are Changing the Way People Work and Businesses Compete. Harvard Business Press 2009.

  • 29. Zichermann G. J. Linde r. Game-Based Marketing: Inspire Customer Loyalty through Rewards Challenges and Contests. Wiley 2010.

  • 30. Zichermann G. C. Cunningha m. Gamification by Design. O'Reilly 2011.

  • 31. Sheth S. J. Bell G. Kaiser. Halo (Highly Addictive Socially Optimized) Software Engineering. – In: 1st International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering GAS'11 New York 2011.

  • 32. Inbar O. N. Tractinsky O. Tsimhoni T. Seder. Driving the Scoreboard: Motivating Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming. – In: CHI 2011 Workshop Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Game Contexts 2011.

  • 33. Dong T. M. Dontcheva D. Joseph K. Karahalios M. Newman M. Ackerma n. Discovery-Based Games for Learning Software. – In: 2012 ACM Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI'12 New York NY 2012.

  • 34. Carlozo L. Why College Students Stop Short ofaDegree. Reuters 27 March 2012.

  • 35. Lee J. J. Hamme r. Gamification in Education: What How Why Bother? – Academic Exchange Quarterly Vol. 15 2011 No 2 p. 146.

  • 36. Scientists F. O. A. Summit on Educational Games. DC Federation of American Scientists 2006.

  • 37. Kapp K. The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-Based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education. Pfeiffer 2012.

  • 38. Sheldon L. The Multiplayer Classroom: Designing Coursework as a Game. Course Technology PTR 2011.

  • 39. Gee J. What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. – Comput. Entertainment Vol. 1 2003 No 1 p. 20.

  • 40. McGrath N. L. Bayerlein. Engaging Online Students through the Gamification of Learning Materials: The Present and the Future. – In: Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) Sydney Australia 2013.

  • 41. Nicholson S. A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification. – In: GLS 8.0 2012.

  • 42. Brühlmann F. Gamification From the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory and Flow. 2013. fbruehlmann_bachelorthesis_final.pdf

  • 43. Stott A. C. Neustaedter. Analysis of Gamification in Education. Surrey BC Canada 2013.

  • 44. Clark M. M. Rossite r. Narrative Learning in Adulthood. – In: New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 2008 61-70.

  • 45. Salen K. Toward an Ecology of Gaming in the Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth Games and Learning toward an Ecology of Gaming in the Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth Games and Learning. Cambridge MA The MIT Press 2008 1-17.

  • 46. Deterding S. Skill Atoms as Design Lenses for User-Centered Gameful Design. – In: CHI'13 Paris France 2013.

  • 47. Deterding S. R. Khaled L. Nacke D. Dixon. Gamification: Toward a Definition. – In: CHI'11 Gamification Workshop Vancouver BC Canada 2011.

  • 48. Fishman B. S. Deterding. Beyond Badges and Points: Gameful Assessment Systems for Engagement in Formal Education. – In: Games Learning and Society Conference Madison WI 2013.

  • 49. Chen S. Gameful Design. Part I. September 2012.

  • 50. Rameriz D. K. Squir e. Gamification for Education Reform Gameful World. MIT Press 2014.

  • 51. Holman C. B. Fishman S. Aguilar. Designing a Game-Inspired Learning Management System. – In: Games Learning and Society Conference Madison WI 2013.

  • 52. Kim J. W. Lee. Dynamical Model for Gamification of Learning (DMGL). – Multimedia Tools and Applications 2013 1-11.

  • 53. Hunicke R. M. LeBlanc R. Zubek. MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research. – In: Challenges in Game AI Workshop Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence San Jose CA 2004.

  • 54. Malone T. What Makes Things Fun to Learn? Heuristics for Designing Instructional Computer Games. – In: 3rd ACM SIGSMALL Symposium Palo Alto California 1980.

  • 55. Malone T. M. Leppe r. Making Learning Fun: A Taxonomy of Intrinsic Motivations for Learning. – Aptitude Learning and Instruction Vol. 3 1987 223-253.

  • 56. Cook D. The Chemistry of Game Design. 2007.

  • 57. Koster R. Theory of Fun for Game Design. O'Reilly Media Inc. 2013. 902 p.

  • 58. Deterding S. Paidia as Paideia: From Game-Based Learning to a Life Well-Played. – In: Keynote. GLS 8.0 2012.

  • 59. Koster R. An Atomic Theory of Fun Game Design. 2012.

  • 60. Schell J. The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses. Amsterdam Morgan Kaufman 2009.

  • 61. Challenge Based Learning White Paper. Apple Inc. October 2011.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.84

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.215
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.595

Mathematical Citation Quotient (MCQ) 2018: 0.01

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 936 482 13
PDF Downloads 480 230 15