Occurrence of tetracyclines in feedingstuffs – results of a two-year study within the official control of feed

Monika Przeniosło-Siwczyńska 1 , Ewelina Patyra 1 , Maja Chyłek-Purchała 1 , Beata Kozak 1 , and Krzysztof Kwiatek 1
  • 1 Department of Hygiene of Animal Feedingstuffs, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland


The paper describes a microbiological method for the detection of antibacterial substances in feedingstuffs. The method allowed detection of the main antibiotic groups, including tetracyclines. In 2013-2014, a total of 171 feed samples were analysed to determine antibacterial substances. Among the analysed samples 84 (49.1%) were suspected to contain tetracyclines. Out of the 84 feeds analysed using chromatography, 28 (33.3%) contained undeclared tetracyclines, which were identified at concentrations ranging from 0.32 mg kg-1 to 48.98 mg kg-1.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Chafer-Pericas C., Maquieira A., Puchades R.: Fast screening methods to detect antibiotic residues in food samples. Trends Anal Chem 2010, 29, 1038-1049.

  • 2. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003 of 22 September 2003 on additives for use in animal nutrition.

  • 3. Gajda A., Posyniak A.: Tetracyclines and their epimers in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2009, 53, 263-267.

  • 4. Grave K., Torren-Edo J., Mackay D.: Comparison of the sales of veterinary antibacterial agents between 10 European countries. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010, 65, 2037-2040.

  • 5. De Jong J., Tomassen M.J.H., van Egmond H.J., van Rhijn J.A., Zuidema T., Michard J., Genouel C., Brambilla G., Nunes da Costa J.M.G., Nordkvist E., Wagner W., Thalmann A., Plöger A., Rath G., von Holst C.: Towards a control strategy for banned antibiotics and growth promoters in feed: the SIMBAG- FEED project. In: Antimicrobial growth promoters. Where do we go from here?, edited by Barug D., de Jong J., Kies A.K., Verstegen M.W.A., Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2006, pp. 211-234.

  • 6. Kaklamanos G., Vincent U., von Holst C.: Analysis of antimicrobial agents in pig feed by liquid chromatography coupled to orbitrap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2013, 1293, 60-74.

  • 7. Kantiani L., Farre M., Grases, Freixiedas J.M., Barcelo D.: Determination of antibacterials in animal feed by pressurized liquid extraction followed by online purification and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 2010, 398, 1195-1205.

  • 8. Kirbiś A.: Microbiological 5-plate screening method for detection of tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins and macrolides in milk. Slov Vet Res 2006, 43, 161-168.

  • 9. Krasucka D., Cybulski W., Klimowicz A.: Evaluation of antimicrobial agent consumption in swine, cattle and poultry in Poland in 2010-2012. In: Prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine, edited by Niemczuk K. and Krasucka D., National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, 2013, pp. 25-39.

  • 10. Krasucka D., Cybulski W., Klimowicz A.: Evaluation of the use of veterinary medicinal products in swine and cattle in 2010-2013. Biul Północno-Wschodniej Izby Lek-Wet 2015, 56, 39-41.

  • 11. Lynas L., Currie D., McCaughey W.J., McEvoy J.D.G., Kennedy D.G.: Contamination of animal feedingstuffs with undeclared antimicrobial additives. Food Addit Contamin 1998, 15, 162-170.

  • 12. McEvoy J.D.G.: Contamination of animal feedingstuffs as a cause of residues in food: a review of regulatory aspects, incidence and control. Anal Chim Acta 2002, 473, 3-26.

  • 13. Pikkemaat M.G., Oostra-van Dijk S., Schouten J., Rapallini M., van Egmond H.J.: A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening). Food Control 2008, 19, 781-789.

  • 14. Przeniosło-Siwczyńska M., Kwiatek K.: Evaluation of multi- plate microbial assay for the screening of antibacterial substances in animal feedingstuffs. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2007, 51, 599-602.

  • 15. Rodriguez-Comesana M., Cancho-Grande B., Simal-Gandara J.: Screening method for detecting cross-contamination residues of tiamulin in swine feeds. J AOAC Intern 2003, 86, 449-452.

  • 16. Segato G., Benetti C., Angeletti R., Montesissa C., Biancotto G.: Doxycycline and sulfadimethoxine transfer from crosscontaminated feed to chicken tissues. Food Addit Contamin 2011, 28, 860-868.


Journal + Issues