Avian tuberculosis in a captive cassowary (Casuarius casuarius)

Open access


The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Anon 2012: IUCN (2011) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. Available from: www.iucnredlist.org (accessed: 17 March 2012).

  • 2. Dhama K. Mahendranan M. Tiwari R. Dayal Singh S. Kumar D. Singh S. Sawant P.M.: Tuberculosis in birds: Insights into the Mycobacterium avium infections. Vet Med Int 2011 doi: 10.4061/2011/712369.

  • 3. Domańska-Blicharz K. Tomczyk G. Śmietanka K. Kozaczynski W. Minta Z.: Molecular characterization of fowl adenoviruses isolated from chickens with gizzard erosions. Poult Sci 2011 90 983-989.

  • 4. Guz L. Grądzki Z. Krajewska M. Lipiec M. Zabost A. Augustynowicz-Kopeć E. Zwolska Z. Szulowski K.: Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycobacterium peregrinum in ornamental fish. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2013 57 489-492.

  • 5. Hsieh Y.C. Tsai K.Y. Wang C.Y. Hung C.N. Tsai S.S. Liu H.J.: Diagnosis of avian tuberculosis in Swinhoe's pheasants using conventional and molecular-based techniques. Avian Dis 2009 53 629-633.

  • 6. Kozdruń W. Woźniakowski G. Czekaj H. Kozaczyński W. Samorek-Salamonowicz E.: New herpesvirus isolated from geese in Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2013 57 301-304.

  • 7. Kriz P. Kaevska M. Bartejsova I. Pavlik I.: Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium found in raptors exposed to infected domestic fowl. Avian Dis 2013 57 688-692.

  • 8. Kriz P. Kaevska M. Bartejsova I. Pavlik I.: Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in lymph nodes and diaphragms of pigs from one infected herd in the Czech Republic. J Food Prot 2014 77 141-144.

  • 9. Latch P.: Recovery plan for the southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii). Cassowary Recovery Team Queensland Government Environmental Protection Agency Australian Government 2007.

  • 10. Mitchell M.A.: Mycobacterial infections in reptiles. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2012 15 101-111.

  • 11. Niczyporuk J.S. Samorek-Salamonowicz E. Czekaj H.: Analysis of adenovirus strains isolated from poultry in Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2013 57 305-310.

  • 12. Niczyporuk J.S. Samorek-Salamonowicz E. Lecollinet S. Pancewicz S.A. Kozdruń W. Czekaj H.: Occurrence of West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds horses and humans in Poland. Biomed Res Int 2015 doi: 10.1155/2015/234181.

  • 13. Pavlik I. Machackova M. Yayo Ayele W. Lamka J. Parmova I. Melicharek I. Hanzlikova M. Kormendy B. Nagy G. Cvetnic Z. Ocepek M. Lipiec M.: Incidence of bovine tuberculosis in wild and domestic animals other than cattle in six Central European countries during 1990-1999. Vet Med Czech 2002 5 122-131.

  • 14. Robitschenko T. Schlatter M.: The southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius johnsonii) population in Mission Beach Queensland Northern Australia: Threats and protective actions. Final thesis of animal management wildlife management Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences Holland 2012.

  • 15. Runyon E.H.: Anonymous mycobacteria in pulmonary disease. Med Clin North Am 1959 43 273-290.

  • 16. Safianowska A. Walkiewicz R. Nejman-Gryz P. Chazan R. Grubek-Jaworska H.: The comparison between two methods for typing of nontuberculous mycobacteria: high pressure liquid chromatography and molecular assay GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS. Pneumol Alergol Pol 2010 78 363-368.

  • 17. Safianowska A. Walkiewicz R. Nejman-Gryz P. Chazan R. Grubek-Jaworska H.: Diagnostic utility of the molecular assay GenoType MTBC (HAIN Lifesciences Germany) for identification of tuberculous mycobacteria. Pneumol Alergol Pol 2009 77 517-520.

  • 18. Sarkola A. Mäkinen J. Marjamäki M. Marttila H.J. Viljanen M. K. Soini H.: Perspective evaluation of the GenoType assay for routine identification of mycobacteria. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2004 23 642-645.

  • 19. Shivaprasad H.L. Palmieri C.: Pathology of mycobacteria in birds. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2012 15 41-55.

  • 20. Soler D. Brieva C. Ribón W.: Mycobacteriosis in wild birds: the potential risk of disseminating a little-known infectious disease. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2009 11 134-144.

  • 21. Stenzel T. Bancerz-Kisiel A. Tykałowski B. Smiałek M. Pestka D. Koncicki A.: Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from pigeons in Poland. Pol J Vet Sci 2014 17 169-171.

  • 22. Ucko M. Colorni A.: Mycobacterium marinum infections in fish and humans in Israel. J Clin Microbiol 2005 43 892-895.

  • 23. Van Ingen J.: Diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2013 34 103-109.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,829
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,938

CiteScore 2018: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.291
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.501

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 345 144 10
PDF Downloads 123 65 2