The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen) and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2%) were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5%) animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9%) seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Ackermann M., Engels M.: Pro and contra IBR-eradication. Vet Microb 2006, 113, 293-302.
2. Barrett D.C.: Cost-effective antimicrobial drug selection for the management and control of respiratory disease in European cattle. Vet Rec 2000, 146, 545-550.
3. Cho H.J., Entz S.C., Green G.T., Jordan L.T.: A blocking ELISA with improved sensitivity for the detection of passively acquired maternal antibodies to BHV-1. Can Vet J 2002, 43, 43-45.
4. Cowley D.J.B., Clegg T.A., Doherty M.L., More S.J.: Aspects of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in dairy and beef herds in the Republic of Ireland. Acta Vet Scand 2011, 53, 40-47.
5. Hage J.J., Schukken Y.H., Dijkstra T., Barkema H.W., Van Valkengoed P.H.R., Wentink G.H.: Milk production and reproduction during a subclinical bovine herpesvirus1 infection on a dairy farm. Prev Vet Med 1998, 34, 97-106.
6. Makoschey B., Franken P., Mars J.M., Dubois E., Schroeder C., Thiry J., Alvarez M., Rypuła K., Cavirani S., Arnaiz I., Houtain J.Y., Bartak P., Brownlie J., Wolf G., Meyer G., Klees W., Beer M., Moennig V., Thiry E.: IBR and BVD control: the key to successful herd management. Berl Münchener Tierärztl Wochen 2010, 123, 519-521.
8. Meurens F., Schynts F., Keil G.M., Muylkens B., Vanderplasschen A., Gallego P., Thiry E.: Superinfection prevents recombination of the Alphaherpesviruses bovine herpesvirus 1. J Virol 2004, 78, 3872-3879.
9. Miller J.M.: The effects of IBR virus infection on reproductive function of cattle. Vet Med 1991, 86, 95-98.
10. Vonk Noordegraaf A., Labrovic A., Frankena K., Pfeiffer D.U., Nielen M.: Simulated hazards of loosing infection-free status in a Dutch BHV1 model. Prev Vet Med 2004, 62, 51-58.
11. Raaperi K., Nurmoja I., Orro T., Viltrop A.: Seroepidemiology of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infection among Estonian dairy herds and risk factors for the spread within herds. Prev Vet Med 2010, 96, 74-81
12. Raaperi K., Aleksejev A., Orro T., Viltrop A.: Dynamics of bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection in Estonian dairy herds with and without a control programme. Vet Rec 2012, 171, doi: 10.1136/vr.100253
13. Raaperi K., Bougeard S., Aleksejev A., Orro T., Viltrop A.: Association of herd BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease in young stock in Estonian dairy cattle. Res Vet Sci 2012, 93, 641-648.
14. Raaperi K., Orro T., Viltrop A.: Effect of vaccination against bovine herpesvirus 1 with inactivated gE-negative marker vaccines on the health of dairy cattle herds. Prev Vet Med 2015, 118, 467-476.
15. Regulation amending Regulation establishing types of diseases, methods of control and examination scope of animal infections. 24 June 2010, No. 123, (LEX-FAOC113718).
16. Rola J., Larska M., Polak M.P.: Detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 from an outbreak of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2005, 49, 267-271.
17. Rypuła K., Płoneczka-Janeczko K., Kita J., Kumala A., Żmudziński J.F.: Seroprevalence of BHV-1 (bovine herpesvirus type 1) among non-vaccinated dairy cattle herds with respiratory disorders. Pol J Vet Sci 2012, 15, 561-563.
18. Saravanajayam M., Kumanan K., Palanivel K.M.: Evaluation of indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization test in the diagnosis of bovine herpes virus - 1 (BHV-1) antibodies in cattle. Indian J Anim Res 2015, 49, 364-366.
19. Snowder G.D., Van Vleck L.D., Cundiff L.V., Bennett G.L., Koohmarai M., Dikeman M.E.: Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: Phenotypic, environmental, and genetic correlations with growth, carcass, and longissimus muscle palatability traits. J Anim Sci 2007, 85, 1885-1892.
20. Wentink G.H., van Oirschot J.T., Verhoeff J.: Risk of infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1): a review paper. Vet Quart 1993, 15, 30-33.
21. Woodbine K.A., Medley G.F., Moore S.J., Ramirez- Villaescusa A.M., Mason S., Green L.E.: A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) in adult cattle in 107 unvaccinated herds in south west England. BMC Vet Res 2009, 5, 5-16.