This study was an attempt to evaluate sperm chromatin structure in the semen of insemination boars. Preparations of semen were stained with acridine orange, aniline blue, and chromomycin A3. Abnormal protamination occurred more frequently in young individuals whose sexual development was not yet complete, but may also be an individual trait. This possibility is important to factor into the decision regarding further exploitation of insemination boars. Thus a precise assessment of abnormalities in the protamination process would seem to be expedient as a tool supplementing morphological and molecular evaluation of semen. Disruptions in nucleoprotein structure can be treated as indicators of the biological value of sperm cells.
2. Andraszek K. Banaszewska D. Czubaszek M. Wojcik E. Szostek M.: Comparison of different chromatin staining protamine family of sperm nuclear techniques for bull sperm. Arch Tierz 2014 57 1-15.
3. Balhorn R.: The protamine family of sperm nuclear proteins. Genome Biol 2007 8 227-234.
4. Barrat Ch.L.R. Aitken R.J. Bjorndahl L. Carrell T. de Boer P. Kvist U. Lewis S.E.M. Perreault S.D. Perry M.J. Ramos L. Robaire B. Ward S. Zini A.: Sperm DNA: organization protection and vulnerability: from basic science to clinical applications a position report. Hum Reprod 2010 25 824-838.
5. Banaszewska D. Kondracki S.: An assessment of the breeding maturity of insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes. Folia Biol (Krakow) 2012 60 151-162.
6. Belokopytova I.A. Kostyleva E.I. Tomilin A.N. Vorob’ev V.I.: Human male infertility may be due to a decrease of the protamine P2 content in sperm. Mol. Reprod Dev 1993 34 53-57.
7. Carrell D.T. Emery B.R. Hammoud S.: Altered protamine expression and diminished spermatogenesis: what is the link? Hum Reprod Update 2007 13 313-327.
8. Carrell D.T. Hammoud S.S.: The human sperm epigenome and its potential role in embryonic development. Mol Hum Reprod 2010 16 37-37.
9. Delbes G. Hales B.F. Robaire B.: Toxicants and human sperm chromatin integrity. Mol Hum Reprod 2010 16 14-22.
10. De Vos A. Van De Velde H. Joris H. Verheyen G. Devroey P. Van Steirteghem A.: Influence of individual sperm morphology on fertilization embryo morphology and pregnancy outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril 2003 79 42-48.
11. Dias G.M. Retamal C.A. Tobella L. Arnholdt A.C. Lopez M.L.: Nuclear status of immature and mature stallion spermatozoa. Theriogenology 2006 66 354-365.
12. Evenson D.P. Jost L.K. Marshall D. Zinaman M.J. Clegg E. Purvis K. de Angelis P. Claussen O.P.: Utility of the sperm chromatin structure assay as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the human fertility clinic. Hum Reprod 1999 14 1039-1049.
13. Evenson D.P. Jost L.K. Corzett M. Balhorn R.: Characteristics of human sperm chromatin structure following an episode of influenza and high fever: a case study. J Androl 2000 21 739-746.
14. Fernandez-Gonzalez R. Moreira P.N. Perez-Crespo M. Sanchez-Martin M. Ramirez M.A. Pericuesta E. Bilbao A. Bermejo-Alvarez P. De Dios Hourcade J. De Fonseca F.R. Gutierrez-Adan A.: Long-term effects of mouse intracytoplasmic sperm injection with DNA-fragmented sperm on health and behavior of adult offspring. Biol Reprod 2008 78 761-772.
15. Franken D.R. Franken C.J. de la Guerre H. de Villiers A.: Normal sperm morphology and chromatin packaging: comparison between aniline blue and chromomycin A3 staining. Andrologia 1999 31 361-366.
16. Fraser L. Strzeżek J.: The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5oC and 16oC. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2004 42 49-55.
17. Hammoud S.S. Nix D.A. Zhang H. Purwar J. Carrell D.T. Cairns B.R.: Distinctive chromatin in human sperm packages genes for embryo development. Nature 2009 460 473-478.
18. Hecht N.B.: Regulation of ‘haploid expressed genes’ in male germ cells. J Reprod Fertil 1990 88 679-693.
19. Hofmann N. Hilscher B.: Use of aniline blue to assess chromatin condensation in morphologically normal spermatozoa in normal and infertile men. Hum Reprod 1991 6 979-982.
20. Hu J.H. Li Q.W. Jiang Z.L. Li W.Y.: Effects of different extenders and DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing. Cryobiology 2008 57 257-262.
21. Iranpour F.G. Nasr-Esfahani M.H. Valojerdi M.R. al-Taraihi T.M.: Chromomycin A3 staining as a useful tool for evaluation of male fertility. J Assist Reprod Genet 2000 17 60-66.
22. Jenkins T.G. Emery B.R. Carrell D.T.: Assays used in the study of sperm nuclear proteins. In: Sperm Chromatin - Biological and Clinical Applications in Male Infertility and Assisted Reproduction. Springer Science+Business Media London 2011 pp. 233-241.
23. Kazerooni T. Asadi N. Jadid L. Kazerooni M. Ghanadi A. Ghaffarpasand F. Kazerooni Y. Zolghadr J.: Evaluation of sperm’s chromatin quality with acridine orange test chromomycin A3 and aniline blue staining in couples with unexplained recurrent abortion. J Assist Reprod Genet 2009 26 591-596.
24. Lewis J.D. Song Y. de Jong M.E. Bagha S.M. Ausio J.: A walk through vertebrate and invertebrate protamines. Chromosoma 2003 111 473-482.
25. Lolis D. Georgiou I. Syrrou M. Zikopoulos K. Konstantelli M. Messinis I.: Chromomycin A3 staining as an indicator of protamine deficiency and fertilization. Int J Androl 1996 19 23-27.
26. Nagvenkar P. Zaveri K. Hinduja I.: Comparison of the sperm aneuploidy rate in severe oligozoospermic and oligozoospermic men and its relation to intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome. Fertil Steril 2005 84 925-931.
27. Nanassy L. Carrell D.T.: Paternal effects on early embryogenesis. J Exp Clin Assist Reprod 2008 5 2.
28. Nasr-Esfahani M.H. Salehi M. Razavi S. Anjomshoa M. Rozbahani S. Moulavi F. Mardani M.: Effect of sperm DNA damage and sperm protamine deficiency on fertilization and embryo development post-ICSI. Reprod Biomed Online 2005 11 198-205.
29. Perez-Llano B. Enciso M. Garcia-Casado P. Sala R. Gosalvez J.: Sperm DNA fragmentation in boars is delayed or abolished by using sperm extenders. Theriogenology 2006 66 2137-2143.
30. Puscheck E.E. Jeyendran R.S.: The impact of male factor on recurrent pregnancy loss. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2007 19 222-228.
31. Rousseaux S. Caron C. Govin J. Lestrat C. Faure A.K. Khochbin S.: Establishment of male-specific epigenetic information. Gene 2005 345 139-153.
32. Saxena P. Misro M.M. Chaki S.P. Chopra K. Roy S. Nandan D.: Is abnormal sperm function an indicator among couples with recurrent pregnancy loss? Fertil Steril 2008 90 1854-1858.
33. Sotolongo B. Lino E. Ward W.S.: Ability of hamster spermatozoa to digest their own DNA. Biol Reprod 2003 69 2029-2035.
34. Tateno H. Kimura Y. Yanagimachi R.: Sonication per se is not as deleterious to sperm chromosomes as previously inferred. Biol Reprod 2000 63 341-346.
35. Tejda D.P. Cameron J.C. Normal A.: A test for the practical evaluation of male fertility by acridine orange (AO) fluorescence. Fertil Steril 1984 42 87-91.
36. Wong A. Chuan S.S. Patton W.C. Jacobson J.D. Corselli J. Chan P.J.: Addition of eosin to the aniline blue assay to enhance detection of immature sperm histones. Fertil Steril 2008 90 1999-2002.