Occurrence of Aujeszky’s disease virus single-reactor pigs in Poland


The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of single-reactor (SR) pigs in Poland, to attempt an explanation for this phenomenon, and to assess whether the occurrence of SR pigs could create problems for a successful Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) eradication programme in Poland. A total of 6494 ADV gE antibody positive/doubtful sera were retested by gB ELISA and subsequently by virus neutralisation test (VNT) to confirm the results of the glycoprotein E (gE) ELISA. Amongst the serum samples tested, 5.9% could be classified as being taken from SR pigs, as was shown by gE ELISA positive/doubtful results, which were not confirmed by negative findings in gB ELISA and VNT. It means that the observed SR phenomenon was due to a false positive/doubtful reaction in gE ELISA. This finding was strongly supported by the fact that the serum samples were taken from the animals from herds without any previous or subsequent history of Aujeszky’s disease. The low percentage of SR pigs does not seem to create a big obstacle to a successful ADV eradication programme in Poland.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Annelli J.F., Morrison R.B., Goyal S.M., Bergeland M.E., Mackey W.J., Thawley D.G.: Pig herds having a single reactor to serum antibody tests to Aujeszky’s disease virus. Vet Rec 1991, 128, 49-53.

  • 2. Brown T.M., Osorio F.A., Rock D.L.: Detection of latent pseudorabies virus in swine using in situ hybridization. Vet Microbiol 1990, 24, 273-280.

  • 3. Commission Decision 2008/185/EC of 21 February 2008 on additional guarantees in intra-Community trade of pigs relating to Aujeszky’s disease and criteria to provide information on this disease. OJ L 59, 4.3.2008, p. 19.

  • 4. Davison A.J.: Herpesvirus systematics. Vet Microbiol 2010, 143, 52-69.

  • 5. Gajęcki M.: The effect of Aujeszky’s disease (natural infection) on the subsequent productivity of sows. Acta Vet, Belgrad 1987, 37, 47-58.

  • 6. Hasebe H., Wheeler G.J., Osorio F.A.: Gene specific assay to differentiate strains of pseudorabies virus. Vet Microbiol 1993, 34, 221-231.

  • 7. Jacobs L., Kimman T.G., Bianchi A.: Lack of serum antibodies against glycoprotein E in pseudorabies virus-immune pigs infected with wild-type virus. Am J Vet Res 1996, 57, 1525-1528.

  • 8. Jacobs L., Voets R., Bianchi A.T.J.: Detection of pseudorabies virus DNA in individual single-reactor pigs found in certified pseudorabies-free herds. Res Vet Sci 1999, 67, 305-307.

  • 9. Kasza L., Shadduck J.A., Christofinis G.J.: Establishment, viral susceptibility and biological characteristics of swine kidney cell line SK-6. Res Vet Sci 1972, 13, 46-51.

  • 10. Lipowski A.: Aujeszky’s disease once again - about what we should and have to remember (In Polish). Magazyn Wet. Suplement Świnie 2005, 94-96.

  • 11. Lipowski A.: Comparison of Aujeszky’s disease eradication programmes in selected countries of the European Union. Życie Wet 2005, 80, 78-83.

  • 12. Lipowski A., Pejsak Z.: Aujeszky’s disease - a potentially dangerous barrier in international trade of pigs. Życie Wet 2001, 76, 76-79.

  • 13. Lipowski A., Związek J., Pejsak Z.: Seroprevalence of Aujeszky’s disease in pigs in Poland in the years 2005-2007. Med Weter 2009, 65, 771-774.

  • 14. Loula T.J.: Experiences in eliminating PRV from herds. Proc. First International Symposium on the Eradication of Pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s) Virus. St. Paul, USA 1991, pp. 143-151.

  • 15. McFerran J.B., Dow C.: Studies on immunization of pigs with the Bartha strain of Aujeszky’s disease virus. Res Vet Sci 1975, 19, 17-22.

  • 16. Mettenleiter T.C., Ehlers B., Müller T., Yoon K.J., Teifke J.P.: Herpesviruses. In: Diseases of Swine, edited by Zimmerman J.J., Karriker L.A., Ramirez A., Schwartz K.J., Stevenson G., Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, USA, 2012, pp. 421-446.

  • 17. Ministry Council Regulation of 19 March 2008 concerning introducing Aujeszky’s disease eradication programme. Official Gazette of the Republic of Poland no. 64, act no. 397, 2008.

  • 18. Ministry Council Regulation of 6 December 2012 concerning introducing Aujeszky’s disease eradication and monitoring programme. Official Gazette of the Republic of Poland act no. 1440, 2012.

  • 19. Pejsak Z., Lipowski A., Wijaszka T.: Single reactor in the herd monitored for Aujeszky’s disease - not only a scientific problem. Życie Wet 2009, 84, 969-972.

  • 20. Ros Bascuñana C., Björnerot L., Ballagi-Pordány A., Robertsson J-Å., Belák S.: Detection of pseudorabies virus genomic sequences in apparently uninfected ‘single reactor’ pigs. Vet Microbiol 1997, 55, 37-47.

  • 21. Van Oirschot J.T.: Induction of antibodies to glycoprotein I in pigs exposed to different doses of a mildly virulent strain of Aujeszky’s disease virus. Vet Rec 1988, 122, 599-603.

  • 22. Związek J.: Epidemiological analysis of Aujeszky’s disease eradication programme in Poland between 2006 and 2010. PhD Thesis, Warsaw 2012.


Journal + Issues