Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance of Lactococcus Sp. Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Open access

Abstract

A current profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of 29 Lactococcus garvieae and one Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from farms throughout Turkey were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G (90%), ampicillin (86.7%), florfenicol (83.3%), amoxicillin (80.1%), and tetracycline (73.4%), and resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (86.6%) and gentamycin (46.6%) by disc diffusion method. Twenty-eight (93%) isolates had two to seven antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) determined by PCR. The most prevalent ARGs were tetracycline (tetB), erythromycin (ereB), and β-lactam (blaTEM). Bacterial strains were also screened for plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and two strains harboured plasmids, with sizes ranging from 3 to 9 kb.

1. Acar J, Rostel B.: Antimicrobial resistance: an overview. Sci Tech Rev 2001, 20, 797-810.

2. Altinok I.: Multiplex PCR assay for detection of four major bacterial pathogens causing rainbow trout disease. Dis Aquat Organ 2011, 93, 199-206.

3. Arthur M., Autissier D., Courvalin P.: Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the ereB gene encoding the erythromycin esterase type II. Nucleic Acids Res 1986, 14, 4987-4999.

4. Cabello F.C, Godfrey H.P., Tomova A, Ivanova L, Dölz H.: Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health. Environ Microbiol 2013, 15, 1917-1942.

5. Chan J.F.W, Woo P.C.Y., Teng J.L.L, Lau S.K.P, Leung S.S.M., Tam F.C.C., Yuen K.Y.: Primary infective spondylodiscitis caused by Lactococcus garvieae and a review of human L. garvieae infections. Infection 2011, 39, 259-264.

6. Charpentier E., Gerbaud G., Courvalin P.: Characterization of a new class of tetracycline-resistance gene tet(S) in Listeria monocytogenes BM4210. Gene 1993, 131, 27-34.

7. CLSI.: Performance standarts for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty-first Informational Supplement, 2011.

8. Devriese L.A, Hommez J, Laevens H., Banadme P., Haesebrouck F.: Identification of aesculin hydrolyzing streptococci and enterococci from subclinical intramammary infections in dairy cows. Vet Microbiol 1999, 70, 87-94.

9. Diler O., Altun S, Adiloglu A.K., Kubilay A, Isikli B.: First occurrence of Streptococcosis affecting farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Turkey. Bull Eur Assn Fish P 2002, 22, 21-25.

10. Kav K, Erganis O.: Isolation, identification and determination of phenotypic characteristics of L. garvieae from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Konya, Turkey. Vet Bil Derg 2008, 23, 7-17.

11. Kawanishi A., Kojima A, Ishihara K, Esaki H., Kijima M, Takahashi T.: Drug resistance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of Lactococcus garvieae isolates from cultured seriola (Yellowtail, Amberjack and Kingfish) in Japan. Lett Appl Microbiol 2005, 40, 322-328.

12. Kayis S, Capkin E., Balta F, Altinok I.: Bacteria in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the southern Black Sea Region of Turkey - A survey. Isr J Aquacult-Bamid 2009, 61, 339-344.

13. Kerrn M.B, Klemmensen T.F., Moller N., Espersen F.: Susceptibility of Danish Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections and bacteraemia, and distribution of sul genes conferring sulphonamide resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002, 50, 513-516.

14. Kubilay A., Altun S, Ulukoy G., Diler O.: Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactococcus garvieae strains. S.D.Ü. Eğirdir Su Ür Fak Derg 2005, 1, 39–48.

15. Kusuda K, Kawai K, Salati F., Banner CR, Fryer J.L.: Enterococcus seriolicida sp. nov, a fish pathogen. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1991, 41, 406-409.

16. Li J, Yie J, Foo R.W.T, Ling J.M.L, Xu H, Woo N.Y.S.: Antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles of Vibrio isolates from cultured silver sea bream, Sparus sarpa. Mar Pollut Bull 1999, 39, 245-249.

17. Maki T, Hirono I, Kondo H, Aoki T.: Drug resistance mechanism of the fish-pathogenic bacterium Lactococcus garvieae. J Fish Dis 2008, 31, 461–468.

18. Muziasari W.I., Managaki S, Pärnänen K, Karkman A, Lyra C: Sulphonamide and trimethoprim resistance genes persist in sediments at Baltic Sea aquaculture farms but are not detected in the surrounding environment. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e92702. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092702.

19. Neela F.A, Nonaka L, Rahman M.H, Suzuki S.: Transfer of the chromosomally encoded tetracycline resistance genes tet(M) from marine bacteria to Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2009, 25, 1095-1101.

20. Ng L.K, Martin I, Alfa M, Mulvey M.: Multiplex PCR for the detection of tetracycline resistant genes. Mol Cell Probe 2001, 15, 209-215.

21. Olesen I, Hasman H, Aarestrup F.M.: Prevalence of β-lactamases among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food animals in Denmark. Microb Drug Resist 2004, 10, 334-340.

22. Ounissi H, Courvalin P.: Nucleotide sequence of the gene ereA encoding the erythromycin esterase in Escherichia coli. Gene 1985, 35, 271-278.

23. Schmidt A.S, Bruun M.S, Larsen J.L, Dalsgaard I.: Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas. J Antimicrob Chemoth 2001, 47, 735-743.

24. Schwartz T, Kohnen W, Jansen B, Obst U.: Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in wastewater, surface water, and drinking water biofilms. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2003, 43, 325-335.

25. Sunde M, Nordstrom M.: The prevalence of associations between and conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from Norwegian meat and meat products. J Antimicrob Chemoth 2006, 58, 741-747.

26. Tejedor J.L, Vela A.I, Gibello A, Casamayor A, Dominguez L, Garayzábal J.F.: A genetic comparison of pig, cow and trout isolates of Lactococcus garvieae by PFGE analysis. Lett Appl Microbiol 2011, 53, 614-619.

27. Turker H, Yildirim A.B, Karakas F.P.: Sensitivity of bacteria isolated from fish to some medicinal plants. Turk J Fish Aquat Sc 2009, 9, 181-186.

28. Van T.T.H, Chin J, Chapman T, Tran L.T, Coloe P.J.: Safety of raw meat and shellfish in Vietnam: an analysis of Escherichia coli isolations for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Int J Food Microbiol 2008, 124, 217-223.

29. Vendrell D, Balcázar J.L, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Gironés O, Múzquiz J.L.: Lactococcus garvieae in fish: A review. Comp Immunol Microb 2006, 29, 177-198.

30. Zühlsdorf M.T, Wiedemann B.: Tn21-specific structures in Gram-negative bacteria from clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992, 36, 1915-1921.

Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

The Journal of National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.811
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.973

CiteScore 2017: 0.68


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.287
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.484

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 209 188 13
PDF Downloads 91 84 13