Brominated Dioxins: Little-Known New Health Hazards - A Review

Open access

Abstract

This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants) has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Ashizuka Y. Nakagawa R. Hori T. Yasutake D. Tobiishi K. Sasaki K.: Determination of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins in fish collected from three regions of Japan. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008 52 273-283.

  • 2. Behnisch P.A. Hosoea K. Sakaib S.: Brominated dioxin-like compounds: in vitro assessment in comparison to classical dioxin-like compounds and other polyaromatic compounds. Environ Int 2003 29 861-877.

  • 3. Birnbaum L.S. Staskal D.F. Diliberto J.J.: Health effects of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). Environ Int 2003 29 855-860.

  • 4. Communication from the Commission to the Council the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee on a Community strategy for dioxins furans and polychlorinated biphenyls. COM (2001) 593 final EC 2001.

  • 5. Dabrowska H. Murk A.J. van den Berg H.J.: Bioassay-derived dioxin equivalent concentrations in gonads and livers of the Atlantic cod females from the Baltic Sea. Ecotox Environ Safe 2010 73 1829-1834.

  • 6. Denison M.S. Soshilov A.A. He G. DeGroot D.E. Zhao B.: Exactly the same but different: promiscuity and diversity in the molecular mechanisms of action of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor. Toxicol Sci 2011 124 1-22.

  • 7. Estrellan C.R. Iino F.: Toxic emissions from open burning. Chemosphere 2010 80 193-207.

  • 8. European Food Safety Authority EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM); Scientific Opinion on Emerging and Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) in Food. EFSA J 2012 10 2908 http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/2908.pdf

  • 9. Falandysz J. Rose M. Fernandes A.R.: Mixed poly-brominated/chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs): widespread food and environmental contaminants. Environ Int 2012 44 118-127.

  • 10. Fernandes A. Dicks P. Mortimer D. Gem M. Smith F. Driffield M White S. Rose M.: Brominated and chlorinated dioxins PCBs and brominated flame retardants in Scottish shellfish: methodology occurrence and human dietary Exposure. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008 52 238-249.

  • 11. Fernandes A. Rosea M. Mortimerb D. Carra M. Pantona S. Smith F.: Mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins dibenzofurans and biphenyls: Simultaneous congener-selective determination in food. J Chromatogr A 2011 1218 9279-9287.

  • 12. Fernandes A.R. Mortimer D. Gem M. Dicks P. Smith F. White S. Rose M.: Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs) in Irish food of animal origin. Food Addit Contam B 2009 2 86-94.

  • 13. Gullett B.K. Wyrzykowska B. Grandesso E. Touati A. Tabor D.G. Ochoa G.S.: PCDD/F PBDD/F and PBDE emissions from open burning of a residential waste dump. Environ Sci Technol 2010 44 394-399.

  • 14. Hagberg J.: Analysis of brominated dioxins and furans by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2009 1216 376-384.

  • 15. Haglund P. Malmvarn A. Bergek S. Bignert A. Kautsky L. Nakano T. Wiberg K. Asplund L.: Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: a new class of marine toxins. Environ Sci Technol 2007 41 3069-3074.

  • 16. Hanari N. Kannan K. Miyake Y. Okazawa T. Kodavanti P.R.S. Aldous K.M. Yamashita N.: Occurrence of polybrominated biphenyls polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans as impurities in technical polybrominated diphenyl ether mixtures. Environ Sci Technol 2006 40 4400-4405.

  • 17. Ieda T. Ochiai N. Miyawaki T. Ohura T. Horii Y.: Environmental analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2011 1218 3224-3232.

  • 18. Isosaari P. Hallikainen A. Kiviranta H. Vuorinen P.J. Parmanne R. Koistinen J. Vartiainen T.: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins dibenzofurans biphenyls naphtalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland. Environ Pollut 2006 141 213-225.

  • 19. Jogsten J.E. Hagberg J. Lindström G. van Bavel B.: Analysis of POPs in human samples reveal a contribution of brominated dioxin of up to 15% of the total dioxin TEQ. Chemosphere 2010 78 113-120.

  • 20. Kotz A. Malisch R. Kypke K. Oehme M.: PBDE PBDD/F and mixed chlorinated-brominated PXDD/F in pooled human milk samples from different countries. Organohalogen Comp 2005 67 1540-1544.

  • 21. Litten S. McChesney D.J. Hamilton M.C. Fowler B.: Destruction of the World Trade Center and PCBs PBDEs PCDD/Fs PBDD/Fs and chlorinated biphenylenes in water sediment and sewage sludge. Environ Sci Technol 2003 37 5502-5510.

  • 22. Malmvarn A. Zebuhr Y. Jensen S. Kautsky L. Greyerz E. Nakano T. Asplund L.: Identification of PBDDs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Baltic sea. Environ Sci Technol 2005 39 8235-8242.

  • 23. Mason G. Zacharewski T. Denomme M. Safe L. Safe S.: Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds: quantitative in-vivo and in-vitro structure activity relationships. Toxicology 1987 44 245-255.

  • 24. Norman Haiden A. Arnoldsson K. Haglund P. Mattsson A. Ullerís E. Sturve J. Norrgren L.: Retention and maternal transfer of brominated dioxins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and effects on reproduction aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Aquatic Toxicol 2011 102 150-161.

  • 25. Piskorska-Pliszczynska J. Maszewski S. Warenik-Bany M. Mikolajczyk S. Goraj L. Survey of persistent organochlorine contaminants (PCDD PCDF and PCB) in fish collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas. Sci World J 2012 1-7 doi:10.1100/2012/973292.

  • 26. Pratt I. Anderson W. Crowley D. Daly S. Evans R. Fernandes A. Fitzgerald M. Tlustos C.: Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food? Food Additi Contam A 2013 30 1788-1798.

  • 27. Rose M. Fernandes A.: Are BFRs responsible for brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in food? Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on brominated flame retardants. Kyoto Japan. 2010. http:// www.bfr2010.com/

  • 28. Safe S. Lee S. Jin U.: Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in carcinogenesis and potential as a drug target. Toxicol Sci 2013 135 1-16.

  • 29. Shaw S.D Berger M.L Harris J.H. Yun S.H. Wu Q. Liao C. Blum A. Stefani A. Kannan K.: Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California. Chemosphere 2013 91 1386-1394.

  • 30. Struciński P. Piskorska-Pliszczyńska J. Maszewski S. Góralczyk K. Warenik-Bany M. Mikołajczyk S. Czaja K. Hernik A. Ludwicki J.K.: PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intake from fish caught in Polish fishing grounds in the Baltic Sea -Characterizing the risk for consumers. Environ Int 2013 56 32-41.

  • 31. Suzuki G. Someya M. Takahashi S. Tanabe S. Sakai S. Takigami H.: Dioxin-like activity in Japanese indoor dusts evaluated by means of in vitro bioassay and instrumental analysis: brominated dibenzofurans are an important contributor. Environ Sci Technol 2010 44 8330-8336.

  • 32. Taylor K.W. Novak R.F. Anderson H.A. Birnbaum L.S. Blystone C. De Vito M. Jacobs D. Köhrle J Lee D.H. Rylander L Rignell-Hydbom A Tornero-Velex R Turyk M.E. Thayer K.A. Lind L.: Evaluation of the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and diabetes in epidemiological studies: a national toxicology program workshop review. Environ Health Persp 2013 121 774-783.

  • 33. Tue N.M. Takahashi S. Subramanian A. Sakai S. Tanabe S.: Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries. Environ Sci Processes Impacts 2013 15 1326-1331.

  • 34. Van den Berg M. van den Birnbaum L.S. Denison M. de Vito M. Farland W. Feeley M. Fiedler H. Hakansson H. Hanberg A. Haws L. Rose M. Safe S. Schrenk D. Tohyama Ch. Tritscher A. Tuomisto J. Tysklind M. Walker N. Peterson R.E.: The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 2006 93 223-241.

  • 35. Van den Berg M. Denison M.S. Birnbaum L.S. DeVito M.J. Fiedler H. Falandysz J. Rose M. Schrenk D. Safe S. Tohyama C. Tritscher A. Tysklind M. Peterson R.E.: Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins dibenzofurans and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 2013 133 197-208.

  • 36. Weber R. Kuch B.: Relevance of BFRs and thermal conditions on the formation pathways of brominated and brominated-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Environ Int 2003 29 699-710.

  • 37. WHO. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Environmental Health Criteria vol. 205. World Health Organization Geneva. 1998. http:// www.inchem.org/ documents/ ehc/ehc/ehc205.htm

  • 38. Zacs D. Rjabova J. Bartkevics V.: Occurrence of brominated persistent organic pollutants (PBDD/DFs PXDD/DFs and PBDEs) in Baltic wild salmon (Salmo salar) and correlation with PCDD/DFs and PCBs. Envirn Sci Technol 2013 47 9478-9486.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,829
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,938

CiteScore 2018: 0.68


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.291
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.501

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 608 256 4
PDF Downloads 276 130 4