There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.
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