Fatty Acid Profile of Milk - A Review

Open access

Abstract

The article describes the recent data dealing with the fatty acid content in cow, goat, and sheep milk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that fatty acid profile in goat and sheep milk was similar to that of cow milk. Palmitic acid was the most abundant in milk. Goat milk had the highest C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0 content. Sheep milk was the richest source of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. Ewe’s milk had lower value of n-6/n-3 then goat and cow milk.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Barłowska J. Litwińczuk Z.: Nutritional and pro-health properties of milk fat. Med Weter 2009 65 171-174.

  • 2. Berquin I.M. Edwards I.J. Chen Y.Q.: Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by omega-3 fatty acids. Cancer Lett 2008 269 363-377.

  • 3. Brenna J.T. Salem N.Jr. Sinclairc A.J. Cunnaned S.C.: α-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. PLEFA 2009 2-3 85-91.

  • 4. Bouwman A.C. Bovenhuis H. Visker M.H.P.W. van Arendonk J.A.M.: Genome-wide association of milk fatty acids in Dutch dairy cattle. BMC Genet 2011 12 43.

  • 5. Butler G. Stergiadis S. Seal C. Eyre M. Leifert C.: Fat composition of organic and conventional retail milk in northeast England. J Dairy Sci 2011 94 24-36.

  • 6. Cieślak A. Kowalczyk J. Czauderna M. Potkański A. Szumacher-Strabel M.: Enhancing unsaturated fatty acids in ewe’s milk by feeding rapeseed or linseed oil. Czech J Anim Sci 2010 55 496-504.

  • 7. Cunnane S.: Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm? Prog Lipid Res 2003 42 544-568.

  • 8. Devle H. Rukke E.O. Naess-Andresen C.F. Ekeberg D.: A GC-magnetic sector MS method for identification and quantification of fatty acids in ewe milk by different acquisition modes. J Sep Sci 2009 32 3738-3745.

  • 9. German J. Gibson R. Krauss R. Nestel P. Lamarche B. van Staveren W. Steijns J. de Groot L. Lock A. Destaillats F.: A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk. Eur J Nut 2009 48 191-203.

  • 10. Goyens P.L.L. Spilker M.E. Zock P.L. Katan M.B. Mensink R.P.: Conversion of α-linolenic acid in humans is influenced by the absolute amounts of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in the diet and not by their ratio. Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84 44-53.

  • 11. Helland I. Smith L. Saarem K. Saugstad O. Drevon C.: Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augemnts children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003 111 39-44.

  • 12. Jóźwik A. Strzałkowska N. Bagnicka E. Poławska E. Horbańczuk J.O.: The effect of feeding linseed cake on milk yield and fatty acid profile in goats. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2010 28 245-251.

  • 13. Jóźwik A. Bagnicka E Strzałkowska N. Śliwa-Jóźwik A. Horbańczuk K. Cooper R.G. Pyzel B. Krzyżewski J. Świergiel A.H. Horbańczuk J.O.: The oxidative status of milking goats after per os administration of Nacetylcysteine. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2010 28 143-152.

  • 14. Jóźwik A. Strzałkowska N. Bagnicka E. Grzybek W. Krzyżewski J. Poławska E. Kołątaj A. Horbańczuk J.O.: Relationship between milk yield stage of lactation and some blood serum metabolic parameters of dairy cows. Czech J Anim Sci 2012 57 353-360.

  • 15. Jóźwik A. Krzyżewski J. Strzałkowska N. Poławska E. Bagnicka E. Wierzbicka A. Niemczuk K. Lipińska P. Horbańczuk J.O.: Relations between the oxidative status mastitis milk quality and disorders of reproductive functions in dairy cows - a review. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2012 30 297-307.

  • 16. Kondyli E. Svarnas C. Samelis J. Katsiari M.C.: Chemical composition and microbiological quality of ewe and goat milk of native Greek breeds. Small Ruminant Res 2012 103 194-199.

  • 17. Lock A. Bauman D.: Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids 2006 39 1197-1206.

  • 18. Mayer H.K. Fiechter G.: Physical and chemical characteristics of sheep and goat milk in Austria. Int Dairy J 2012 24 57-63.

  • 19. McManus A. Merga M. Newton W.: Omega-3 fatty acids. What consumers need to know? Appetite 2011 57 80-83.

  • 20. Moallem U.: The effects of extruded flaxseed supplementation to high-yielding dairy cows on milk production and milk fatty acid composition. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2009 152 232-242.

  • 21. Mougios V. Matsakas A. Petridou A. Ring S. Sagredos A. Melissopoulou A. Tsigilis N. Nikolaidis M.: Effect of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on human serum lipids and body fat. J Nutr Biochem 2001 12 585-594.

  • 22. O’Donnell A.M. Spatny K.P. Vicini J.L. Bauman D.E.: Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk differing in label claims based on production management practices. J Dairy Sci 2010 93 1918-1925.

  • 23. O’Donnell-Megaro A. Barbano D. Bauman D.: Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk in the United States including regional and seasonal variations. J Dairy Sci 2011 94 59-65.

  • 24. Parodi P.: Has the association between saturated fatty acids serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease been over emphasized? Int Dairy J 2009 19 345-361.

  • 25. Poławska E. Marchewka J. Cooper R.G. Sartowska K. Pomianowski J. Jóźwik A. Strzałkowska N. Horbańczuk J.O.: The ostrich meat - an updated review. II. Nutritive value. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2011 29 89-97.

  • 26. Schennink A. Stoop W.M. Visker M.H.P.W. Heck J.M.L. Bovenhuis H. van der Poel J.J. van Valenberg H.J.F. van Arendonk J.A.M.: DGAT1 underlies large genetic variation in milk-fat composition of dairy cows. Anim Genet 2007 38 467-473.

  • 27. Schmidely P. Andrade P.V.D.: Dairy performance and milk fatty acid composition of dairy goats fed high or low concentrate diet in combination with soybeans or canola seed supplementation. Small Ruminant Res 2011 99 135-142.

  • 28. Simopoulos A.: The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol M 2008 233 674-688.

  • 29. Smoczyński M. Staniewski B. Kiełczewska K.: Biogenesis of the milk fat globules. Med Weter 2012 68 163-167.

  • 30. Stender S. Astrup A. Dyerberg J.: Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids: health aspects. Food Nutr Res 2008 52 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1651.

  • 31. Stoop W.M. van Arendonk J.A.M. Heck J.M.L. van Valenberg H.J.F. Bovenhuis H.: Genetic parameters for major milk fatty acids and milk production traits of Dutch Holstein-Friesians. J Dairy Sci 2008 91 385-394.

  • 32. Strzałkowska N. Jóźwik A. Bagnicka E. Krzyżewski J. Horbańczuk J.O.: Studies upon genetic and environmental factors affecting the cholesterol content of cow milk. I. Relationship between the polymorphic form of β-lactoglobulin somatic cell count cow age and stage of lactation and cholesterol content of milk. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2009 27 95-103.

  • 33. Strzałkowska N. Jóźwik A. Bagnicka E. Krzyżewski J. Horbańczuk J. O.: Studies upon genetic and environmental factors affecting the cholesterol content of cow milk. II. Effect of silage type offered. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2009 27 199-206.

  • 34. Strzałkowska N. Jóźwik A. Bagnicka E. Krzyżewski J. Horbańczuk K. Pyzel B. Horbańczuk J.O.: Chemical composition physical traits and fatty acid profile of goat milk as related to the stage of lactation. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2009 27 311-320.

  • 35. Strzałkowska N. Jóźwik A. Bagnicka E. Krzyżewski J. Horbańczuk K. Pyzel B. Słoniewska D. Horbańczuk J.O.: The concentration of free fatty acids in goat milk as related to the stage of lactation age and somatic cell count. Anim Sci Pap Rep 2010 28 389-395.

  • 36. Szumacher-Strabel M. Cieślak A. Zmora P. Pers- Kamczyc E. Bielińska S. Stanisz M. Wojtowski J.: Camelina sativa cake improved unsaturated fatty acids in ewe's milk. J Sci Food Agr 2011 91 2031-2037.

  • 37. Tricon S. Burge G. Jones E. Russell J. El-Khazen S. Moretti E. Hall W. Gerry A. Leake D. Grimble R. Williams C. Calder P. Yaqoob P.: Effects of dairy products naturally enriched with cis-9trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid on the blood profile in healthy middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83 744-753.

  • 38. Tudisco R. Cutrignelli M.I. Calabrò S. Piccolo G. Bovera F. Guglielmelli A. Moniello G. Infascelli F.: Influence of organic systems on milk fatty acid profile and CLA in goats. Small Ruminant Res 2010 88 151-155.

  • 39. Ulbricht T. Southgate D.: Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. Lancet 1991 338 985-992.

  • 40. Zervas G. Tsiplakou E.: The effect of feeding systems on the characteristics of products from small ruminants. Small Ruminant Res 2011 101 140-149.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,829
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,938

CiteScore 2018: 0.68


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.291
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.501

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 810 518 29
PDF Downloads 491 358 50