Microbiological and Marine Biotoxins Contamination of Raw Bivalve Molluscs Commercially Available in Poland

Abstract

The study was carried out on live bivalve molluscs available on Polish market. Microbiological tests were performed for the presence of Salmonella sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, spore-forming anaerobe bacteria, and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp., and for the enumeration of Escherichia coli. ELISA was used for the determination of marine biotoxins, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), and diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Microbiological examinations were performed according to ISO and Polish Standards. Salmonella sp. was not detected in any sample tested. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified in 9.0% of the samples. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from 17.0% of mussels. Shellfish were highly contaminated by anaerobes, which were isolated from 68.0% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged from <2.0 x 101 up to >1.8 x 104 MPN/100 g. The majority of mussels were free from the marine biotoxins tested or contained them bellow the permitted level. The analysis of microbiological and toxicological status of raw bivalve molluscs available on Polish market indicates that they are generally safe for the consumers.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Amagliani G., Brandi G., Schiavano G. F.: Incidence and role of Salmonella in seafood safety. Food Res Int 2012, 45, 780-788.

  • 2. Biasizzo M., Kirbiš A., Marinšek J.: Bacterial contamination of shellfish in Slovenia. Slov Vet Res 2005, 42, 83-87.

  • 3. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. OJ L338, 22.12.2005.

  • 4. Egmond H.P. Van: Paralytic and diarrhoeic shellfish poisons: occurrence in Europe, toxicity, analysis and regulation. J Nat Toxins 1993, 2, 41-83.

  • 5. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA): The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2010. EFSA J 2012, 10, 442.

  • 6. Garthwaite I., Ross K.M., Miles C.O. Briggs L.R., Towers N.R., Borrell T., Busby P.: Integrated enzymelinked immunosorbent assay screening system for amnesic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins found in New Zealand. J AOAC Int 2001, 84, 1643-1648.

  • 7. Huss H.H., Ababouch L., Gram L.: Assessment and management of seafood safety and quality. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 444, Rome, 2003.

  • 8. Igbinosa E.O., Okoh A.I.: Emerging Vibrio species: an unending threat to public health in developing countries. Res Microbiol 2008, 159, 495-506.

  • 9. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF): Microorganisms in Foods 8: use of data for assessing process control and product acceptance. Springer, New York, 2010, pp. 107-133.

  • 10. Jorgensen K., Scanlon S., Jansen L.B.: Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams. Food Add Contam 2005, 22, 743-751.

  • 11. Kleivdal H., Kristiansen S.I., Nilsen M.V., Goksøyr A., Briggs L., Holland P., McNabb P.: Determination of domoic acid toxins in shellfish by biosense ASP ELISA. A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 2007, 90, 1011-1027.

  • 12. Lefebvre K.A., Robertson A.: Domoic acid and human exposure risks: A review. Toxicon 2010, 56, 218-230.

  • 13. Michalski M.M.: Marine biotoxins - occurrence and method of analysis. Żywność. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość 2006, 3, 16-22.

  • 14. Michalski M.: Paralytic shellfish poisoning as a health risk. Medycyna Wet 2007, 63, 1530-1533.

  • 15. Michalski M.: Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) as a risk for consumer health. Medycyna Wet 2010, 66, 530-533.

  • 16. Michalski M.: Amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP) as a risk for consumer health. Medycyna Wet 2011, 67, 599-603.

  • 17. Osek J., Wieczorek K., Tatarczak M.: Seafood as potential source of poisoning by marine biotoxins. Medycyna Wet 2006, 62, 370-373.

  • 18. Oliveira J., Cunha A., Castilho F., Romalde J.L., Pereira M.J.: Microbial contamination and purification of bivalve shellfish: crucial aspects in monitoring and future perspectives - A mini-review. Food Control 2011, 22, 805-816.

  • 19. Papadopoulou C., Economou E., Zakas G., Salamoura C., Dontorou C., Apostolou J.: Microbiological and pathogenic contaminants of seafood in Greece. J Food Quality 2007, 30, 28-42.

  • 20. Pasquale V., Romano V., Rupnik M., Capuano F., Bove D., Aliberti F., Krovacek K., Dumontet S.: Occurrence of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in edible bivalve mollusks. Food Microbiol 2012, 31, 309-312.

  • 21. Polish Standard PN-A-82055-12: Meat and meat products. Microbiological examinations. Detection of anaerobic spore forming bacteria and anaerobic spore forming bacteria of sulphite (IV) reducing. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, 1997.

  • 22. Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 6579: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, 2003.

  • 23. Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 6888-3: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) Part 3: Detection and MPN technique for low numbers. Polish Committee for Standardization, Warsaw, 2005.

  • 24. Pulido O.M.: Domoic acid toxicologic pathology: A Review. Mar Drugs 2008, 6, 180-219.

  • 25. Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs. OJ L 139, 30.04.2004.

  • 26. Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. OJ L 139, 30.4.2004.

  • 27. Roldán E.M., Rodriguez E.E., Vicente C.N., Fernández- Crehuet Navajas M., Abril Moreno O.: Microbial contamination of bivalve molluscs used for human consumption. J Food Saf 2011, 31, 257-261.

  • 28. Technical Specification ISO/TS 16649-3: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli. Part 3: Most probable number technique using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-Dglucuronide. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2005.

  • 29. Technical Specification ISO/TS 21872-1: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Horizontal method for the detection of potentially enteropathogenic Vibrio spp. Part 1: Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 2007.

  • 30. Topic Popovic N., Benussi Skukan A., Dzidara P., Coz- Rakovac R., Strunjak-Perovic I., Kozacinski L., Jadan M., Brlek-Gorski D.: Microbiological quality of marketed fresh and frozen seafood caught off the Adriatic coast of Croatia. Vet Med-Czech 2010, 55, 233-241.

  • 31. Vale P., Sampayo M. A.: Domoic acid in Portuguese shellfish and fish. Toxicon 2001, 39, 893-904.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search