Preference Dimensions of the Estonian Opera-Consumer: A Comparison of the Audiences at Opera Houses and Mediated Opera Performances

Open access

Abstract

This article presents the results of a study in which the Estonian audiences of various stage versions of the same opera (live opera theatre performance and live-in-HD, which were shown at cinemas) during the same season were compared in a social constructivist paradigm to underline whether, and to what extent, audiences’ membership, cultural consumption preferences, attitudes, expectations, values and perceptions differ or coincide, thereby revealing what audiences distinguish as the differences or similarities between live and mediated opera performances. It presents the preference dimensions of the Estonian opera audience and provides an opportunity to discuss the issue of whether a technologically mediated cultural event offers any new opportunities for traditional opera to expand its audience, or whether it captures the audiences and creates competition for the theatres whose performances are not mediated. The survey was carried out among audiences attending performances of Carmen (Georges Bizet, 1875) in the 2014/2015 season at five different venues in Estonia. The findings revealed that, due to the fact that the hierarchy of motivators for the target groups of live and live-in-HD opera differs, it does not support the idea that opera theatre will gain new audiences from cinema or vice versa.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • A. A. K. 2013. ‘How Did Estonia Become a Leader in Technology?’ - The Economist 30 July. http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/07/economist-explains-21 (1 March 2017).

  • Adorno Theodor W.; Frenkel-Brunswik Else; Levinson Daniel J.; Sanford Nevitt 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper & Row.

  • Alderson Arthur S.; Heacock Isaac; Junisbai Azamat 2010. ‘Social Stratification and Musical Consumption: Highbrow-Middlebrow in the United States’. - Tak Wing Chan (ed.) Social Status and Cultural Consumption in Seven Countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 57-84.

  • Ba Sulin 2001. ‘Establishing Online Trust Through a Community Responsibility System’. - Decision Support System 31 323-336.

  • Bandara Wanninayake W. M. C. 2014. ‘Consumer Decision-Making Styles and Local Brand Biasness: Exploration in the Czech Republic’. - Journal of Competitiveness 6 1 3-17. http://www.cjournal.cz/files/160.pdf (22 April 2017).

  • Beck Ulrich; Beck-Gernsheim Elisabeth (eds.) 1994. Riskante Freiheiten: Individualisierung in modernen Gesellschaften. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

  • Benjamin Walter [1921] 1996. The Task of the Translator. Trans. Harry Zohn. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Benzecry Claudio E. 2011. The Opera Fanatic: Ethnography of an Obsession. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Best Henning; Kroneberg Clemens 2012. ‘Die Low-Cost Hypothese. Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Implikationen’. - Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 64 3 535-561.

  • Bollo Alessandro; Pozzolo Luca Dal; Federico Elina Di; Gordon Christopher 2012. Measuring Cultural Participation: 2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics Handbook No. 2. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/measuring-cultural-participation-2009-unesco-framework-for-cultural-statisticshandbook-2-2012-en.pdf (1 December 2017).

  • Bourdieu Pierre 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede. Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft. Trans. Bernd Schwibs Achim Russer. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

  • Bourdieu Pierre 1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Trans. Richard Nice. London: Routledge.

  • Bourdieu Pierre 1993. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Ed. Randal Johnson. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Bowler Tim 2014. ‘Singing Up an Economic Storm: Setting a Crisis to Music’. - BBC News 26 May. http://www.bbc.com/news/business-27502690 (1 March 2017).

  • Cachopo João Pedro 2014. ‘Opera’s Screen Metamorphosis: The Survival of a Genre or a Matter of Translation?’ - The Opera Quarterly 30 4 315-329.

  • Causey Matthew 1999. ‘The Screen Test of the Double: The Uncanny Performer in the Space of Technology’. - Theatre Journal 51 4 383-394. http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/causey.html (1 March 2017).

  • Chaudhuri Arjun; Holbrook Morris B. 2001. ‘The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty’. - Journal of Marketing 65 2 81-93.

  • Darden William R.; Ashton Dub 1974. ‘Psychographic Profiles of Patronage Preference Groups’. - Journal of Retailing 50 4 99-112.

  • Davidow William H.; Uttal Bro 1989. ‘Service Companies: Focus or Falter’. - Harvard Business Review 67 4 77-85.

  • Dewolf Linda 2001. ‘Surtitling Operas’. - Yves Gambier Henrik Gottlieb (eds.) (Multi)media Translation: Concepts Practices and Research. Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins 179-188.

  • Durvasula Srinivas: Lysonski Steven; Andrews J. Craig 1993. ‘Cross-Cultural Generalizability of a Scale for Profiling Consumers’ Decision-Making Styles’. - The Journal of Consumer Affairs 27 1 55-65.

  • ETA (Eesti Teatri Agentuur) 2015a. Teatristatistika. http://statistika.teater.ee (1 March 2017).

  • ETA (Eesti Teatri Agentuur) 2015b. Teatristatistika. Muusikalavastused žanrite järgi. http://statistika.teater.ee/stat/stat_filter/show/performanceMusic (1 March 2017).

  • ETA (Eesti Teatri Agentuur) 2015c. Teatristatistika. Muusikalavastused. http://statistika.teater.ee/stat/stat_filter/show/productionsMusic (1 March 2017).

  • European Commission 2013. Cultural Access and Participation. Special Eurobarometer 399. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/archives/ebs/ebs_399_en.pdf (14 December 2017).

  • Gerhards Jürgen; Rössel Jörg 1999. ‘Zur Transnationalisierung der Gesellschaft der Bundesrepublik. Entwicklungen Ursachen und mögliche Folgen für die Europäische Integration’. - Zeitschrift für Soziologie 28 5 325-344.

  • Guider Elizabeth 2007. ‘Met Sets Tunes to Pop Culture’. - Variety 2 April 43.

  • Grönroos Christian 2000. Service Management and Marketing: A Customer Relationship Management Approach. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Heilbron Johan 1995. ‘Mondialisering en transnationaal verkeer’. - Amsterdam Sociologisch Tijdschrift 22 1 162-180.

  • Holmes John G. 1991. ‘Trust and the Appraisal Process in Close Relationships’. - Warren H. Jones Daniel Perlman (eds.) Advances in Personal Relationships 2. London: Jessica Kingsley 57-104.

  • Kask Karin 1989. Teatriaeg liigub kiirelt. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat.

  • Keaney Emily 2008. ‘Understanding Arts Audiences: Existing Data and What It Tells Us’. - Cultural Trends 17 2 97-113.

  • Kirchberg Volker; Kuchar Robin 2014. ‘States of Comparability: A Meta-Study of Representative Population Surveys and Studies on Cultural Consumption’. - Poetics 43 2 172-191.

  • Kommel Kutt 2008. ‘Loomemajandus’. - Eesti Statistika. http://www.stat.ee/dokumendid/30731 (1 March 2017).

  • Kottasz Rita; Bennett Roger 2005. ‘The Impact of Ethnocentrism on Perceived Reputation and Emotional Liking of Artworks: A Comparative Analysis’. - International Review on Public and Non Profit Marketing 2 2 9-21.

  • Kubo Märt; Viru Liina; Veerg Ülla (eds.) 2008. Rahvusooper Estonia 2003-2008. Tallinn: Rahvusooper Estonia.

  • Lahire Bernard 2008. ‘The Individual and the Mixing of Genres: Cultural Dissonance and Self Distinction’. - Poetics 36 2-3 166-188.

  • Lastovicka John L. 1982. ‘On the Validation of Lifestyle Traits: A Review and Illustration’. - Journal of Marketing Research 19 1 126-138.

  • Lewicki Roy J.; Bunker Barbara Benedict 1995. ‘Trust in Relationships: A Model of Trust Development and Decline’. - Barbara Benedict Bunker Jeffrey Z. Rubin (eds.) Conflict Cooperation and Justice: Essays Inspired by the Work of Morton Deutsch. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 133-173.

  • Lin Yuwei; Williams Alan E. 2012. ‘Projecting the Voice: Audience Responses to ICT-Mediated Contemporary Opera’. http://usir.salford.ac.uk/29236/1/digitalopera_shared_manuscript.pdf (1 March 2017).

  • LiveAnalytics 2013. ‘State of Play: Theatre UK’. - Ticketmaster Blog 26 September. http://blog.ticketmaster.co.uk/news/theatre-uk-evolvingengaging-2013-2209/ (1 March 2017).

  • Lysonski Steven; Durvasula Srinivas; Zotos Yorgos 1996. ‘Consumer Decision Making Styles: A Multi-Country Investigation’. - European Journal of Marketing 30 12 10-21.

  • McQuail Denis 2010. Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction. London: Sage. Mikkel Reet; Pappel Silvia (eds.) 1975. Teatrimärkmik 1972/73. Tallinn: Eesti NSV Teatriühing Eesti Raamat.

  • Ministry of Culture 2011. Survey on Cultural Habits and Practices in Spain 2010-2011: Synthesis of Results. S.l.: Ministerio de cultura. http://www.mecd.gob.es/dam/jcr:697ef028-a7b1-4a2f-80c9-162d712361c6/sintesis-2010-2011-ingles.pdf (1 March 2017).

  • Moretti Franco 2001. ‘Planet Hollywood’. - New Left Review 9 May/June 90-101.

  • Moschis George P. 1976. ‘Shopping Orientations and Consumer Uses of Information’. - Journal of Retailing 52 2 61-70 93.

  • Munk Nina 2010. ‘The Met’s Grand Gamble’. - Vanity Fair Culture May. http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2010/05/metropolitan-opera-201005 (1 March 2017).

  • NEA 2015. A Decade of Arts Engagement: Findings From the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts 2002-2012.Washington DC: National Endowment for the Arts. https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/2012-sppa-feb2015.pdf (1 March 2017).

  • NESTA 2010. Beyond Live: Digital Innovation in the Performing Arts. London: NESTA. https://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/beyond_live.pdf (1 March 2017).

  • Pappel Kristel 2009. ‘National Identity Embedded in an International Art Form: The Role of Opera in Estonian Culture’. - Hans van Maanen Andreas Kotte Anneli Saro (eds.) Global Changes - Local Stages: How Theatre Functions in Smaller European Countries. Amsterdam New York: Rodopi 125-145.

  • Peterson Richard A. 1992. ‘Understanding Audience Segmentation: From Elite and Mass to Omnivore and Univore’. - Poetics 21 4 243-258.

  • Peterson Richard A. 2005. ‘Problems in Comparative Research: The Example of Omnivorousness’. - Poetics 33 5-6 257-282.

  • Peterson Richard A.; Kern Roger M. 1996 ‘Changing Highbrow Taste: From Snob to Omnivore.’ - American Sociological Review 61 5 900-907. http://www.ibrarian.net/navon/paper/Changing_Highbrow_Taste__From_Snob_to_Omnivore.pdf?paperid=12181456 (1 March 2017).

  • Peterson Richard A.; Simkus Albert 1992. ‘How Musical Tastes Mark Occupational Status Groups’. - Michèle Lamont Marcel Fournier (eds.) Cultivating Difference: Symbolic Boundaries and the Making of Inequality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 152-186.

  • Radigales Jaume 2013. ‘Media Literacy and New Entertainment Venues: The Case of Opera in Movie Theatres’. - Communication & Society / Comunicación y Sociedad 26 3 160-170.

  • Reason Matthew 2004. ‘Theatre Audiences and Perceptions of “Liveness” in Performance’. - Participations 1 2. http://www.participations.org/volume%201/issue%202/1_02_reason_article.htm (31 October 2017).

  • Reedi Kaidi 2014. ‘Eestlased ületavad kultuuritarbimises Euroopa vanu kultuurrahvaid’. - TNS Emor 5 February. http://www.emor.ee/eestlased-uletavadkultuuritarbimises-euroopa-vanu-kultuurrahvaid/ (1 March 2017).

  • Reichheld Frederick F. 2003. ‘The One Number You Need’. - Harvard Business Review 81 12 46-54.

  • Richens Frances 2014. ‘Cinema Screenings Fail to Create a New Audience for Opera’. - Arts Professional 30 May. http://www.artsprofessional.co.uk/news/cinema-screenings-fail-create-new-audience-opera (1 March 2017).

  • Rohn Ulrike 2010. Cultural Barriers to the Success of Foreign Media Content: Western Media in China India and Japan. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

  • Roose Henk; Van Eijck Koen; Lievens John 2012. ‘Culture of Distinction or Culture of Openness? Using a Social Space Approach to Analyze the Social Structuring of Lifestyles’. - Poetics 40 6 491-513.

  • Rössel Jörg 2004. ‘Von Lebensstilen zu kulturellen Präferenzen - Ein Vorschlag zur theoretischen Neuorientierung’. - Soziale Welt 55 95-114.

  • Saro Anneli 2009. ‘Introduction to Part 1.’ - Hans van Maanen Andreas Kotte Anneli Saro (eds.) Global Changes - Local Stages: How Theatre Functions in Smaller European Countries. Amsterdam New York: Rodopi 19-22.

  • Schulze Gerhard 1992. Die Erlebnisgesellschaft. Kultursoziologie der Gegenwart. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

  • Shimp Terence A.; Sharma Subhash 1987. ‘Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE’. - Journal of Marketing Research 14 3 280-289.

  • Service Tom 2014. ‘Opera in Cinemas: Is It Creating New Audiences?’ - The Guardian 30 May. http://www.theguardian.com/music/tomserviceblog/2014/may/30/opera-in-cinemas-creating-new-audiences (1 March 2017).

  • Sibrits Heili 2014. ‘Eesti teatri tabu’. - Postimees 20 March. http://arvamus.postimees.ee/2733980/heili-sibrits-eesti-teatri-tabu (1 March 2017).

  • Siitan Toomas 1999. ‘Ooperil on Eestis pikk ajalugu’. - Sirp 13 August. http://www.sirp.ee/archive/1999/13.08.99/Muusik/muusik1-2.html (1 March 2017).

  • Skantze P. A. 2002. ‘Watching in Translation: Performance and the Reception of Surtitles’. - A Journal of the Performing Arts 7 2 26-30.

  • Smith Alistair 2013. ‘Ticketmaster Report: Theatre Audiences Getting Younger and More Experimental’. - The Stage 26 September. https://www.thestage.co.uk/news/2013/ticketmaster-report-theatre-audiencesgetting-younger-experimental/ (1 March 2017).

  • Sproles George B. 1983. ‘Conceptualisation and Measurement of Optimal Consumer Decision Making’. - Journal of Consumer Affairs 17 2 421-438.

  • Sproles George B. 1985. ‘From Perfectionism to Fadism: Measuring Consumers’ Decision-Making Styles’. - Karen P. Schnittgrund (ed.) American Council on Consumer Interests (ACCI) Conference Proceedings. Columbia: ACCI 79-85. http://www.consumerinterests.org/cia1985-2 (1 March 2017).

  • Sproles George B.; Kendall Elizabeth L. 1986. ‘A Methodology for Profiling Consumers’ Decision-Making Styles’. - Journal of Consumer Affairs 20 2 267-279.

  • Statistics Estonia 2015. Eesti statistika aastaraamat / Statistical Yearbook of Estonia 2015. Tallinn: Statistics Estonia.

  • Statistics Estonia 2016. Tallinn. http://www.stat.ee/ppe-tallinn (1 March 2017).

  • Statistics New Zealand 2003. ‘Cultural Experiences Survey’. - Key Statistics October 9-13. http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/industry_sectors/film_and_television/cultural-experiences-survey.aspx (1 March 2017).

  • Steichen James 2011. ‘HD Opera: A Love/Hate Story’. - The Opera Quarterly 27 4 443-459.

  • Stewart James B. 2015. ‘A Fight at the Opera: Peter Gelb Has a Bold Vision. Can the Met Afford It?’ - The New Yorker 23 March. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/23/a-fight-at-the-opera (1 March 2017).

  • Storey John 2002. ‘“Expecting Rain”: Opera as Popular Culture’. - Jim Collins (ed.) High-Pop: Making Culture into Popular Entertainment. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. https://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631222103%5C001.pdf (1 March 2017).

  • Storm Anna 2014. ‘Alternative Content Takes Center Stage: Lessons in Success from Those Who’ve Made It Work’. - Film Journal International 22 April. http://www.filmjournal.com/content/alternative-contenttakes-center-stage-lessons-success-thosewho%E2%80%99ve-made-it-work (1 March 2017).

  • Stratigos Anthea 1999. ‘Measuring End-User Loyalty Matters’. - Journal of Retailing 23 6 74-78.

  • Straubhaar Joseph D. 2003. ‘Choosing National TV: Cultural Capital Language and Cultural Proximity in Brazil’. - Michael G. Elasmar (ed.) The Impact of International Television: A Paradigm Shift. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 77-110.

  • Sumner William G. (1906). Folkways: The Sociological Importance of Usages Manners Customs Mores and Morals. New York: Harper & Row.

  • Tahal Radek; Stríteský Václav 2016. ‘Target Audience of Live Opera Transmissions to Cinema Theatres from the Marketing Point of View’. - Central European Business Review 5 1 29-36. http://cebr.vse.cz/cebr/article/download/229/148 (1 March 2017).

  • Tommasini Anthony 2008. ‘So That’s What the Fat Lady Sang’. - The New York Times 6 July. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/06/arts/music/06tomm.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (1 March 2017).

  • Toronto Arts Stats 2015. Toronto: Toronto Arts Foundation. http://torontoartsfoundation.org/tac/media/taf/Research/Toronto%20Arts%20Stats%202015/Toronto-Arts-Stats-2015-Booklet-FINAL-web.pdf (15 May 2017).

  • Van Eeden Stephan 2011. The Impact of the Met: Live in HD on Local Opera Attendance. MA thesis. University of British Columbia. Vancouver.

  • Van Maanen Hans 2009. How to Study Art Worlds: On the Societal Functioning of Aesthetic Values. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

  • Vida Irena; Dmitrović Tanja; Obadia Claude 2008. ‘The Role of Ethnic Affiliation in Consumer Ethnocentrism’. - European Journal of Marketing 42 3/4 327-343.

  • Walmsley Ben 2011. ‘Why People Go to the Theatre: A Qualitative Study of Audience Motivation’. - Journal of Customer Behaviour 10 4 335-351.

  • Walsh Gianfranco; Hennig-Thurau Thorsten; Wayne-Mitchell Vincent; Wiedmann Klaus-Peter 2001. ‘Consumers’ Decision-Making Style as a Basis for Market Segmentation’. - Journal of Targeting Measurement and Analysis for Marketing 10 2 117-131.

  • Weingartner Sebastian 2013. ‘Hochkulturelle Praxis und Frame-Selektion. Ein integrativer Erklärungsansatz des Kulturkonsums’. - Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 65 1 3-30.

  • Weingartner Sebastian; Rössel Jörg 2016. ‘Opportunities for Cultural Consumption: How Is Cultural Participation in Switzerland Shaped by Regional Cultural Infrastructure?’ - Rationality and Society 28 4 363-385.

  • Weinstock Herbert; Russano Hanning Barbara 2017. ‘Opera’. - Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/art/opera-music (22 April 2017).

  • Wells William D. (ed.) 1975. Life Style and Psychographics. Chicago: American Marketing Association.

  • Zelechow Bernard 1991. ‘The Opera: The Meeting of Popular and Elite Culture in the Nineteenth Century’. - The Journal of Popular Culture 25 2 91-97.

  • Žižek Slavoj; Dolar Mladen 2002. Opera’s Second Death. New York London: Routledge.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 343 147 11
PDF Downloads 94 60 1