The Undercurrents of Estonian Broadcasting Regulation, 1992–2014

Open access

Abstract

This article explores the ways in which different external and internal factors (especially politics and economics) have encouraged or hindered the evolution of Estonian Public Broadcasting. This article argues that the Estonian government’s ‘idealisation’ of market forces that is supported by European Union (EU) media policy and driven by the common market ideology does not take into account the actual abilities of a small country’s media companies to provide a wide range of media services, and thereby limits the offerings of high-quality local content. The research methodology is based on an analysis of EU media policy documents, Estonian media legislation and broadcasters’ annual reports in the period from 1992 to 2014. The main finding of this article is that official Estonian media policy is largely shaped by the financial results of private media companies.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bardoel Jo; d’Haenens Leen; Allerd Peeters 2004. Defi ning Distinctiveness: In Search of Public Broadcasting Performance and Quality Criteria. S.l.: Ripe@2004. http://ripeat.org/2010/defining-distinctiveness-insearch-of-public-broadcasting-performance-andquality-criteria/.

  • Croteau David; Hoynes William 2001. The Business of Media: Corporate Media and the Public Interest. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.

  • Croteau David; Hoynes William; Milan Stefania 2012. Media/Society: Industries Images and Audiences. Los Angeles: Sage.

  • Cuilenburg Jan van; McQuail Denis 2003. ‘Media Policy Paradigm Shifts: Towards a New Communications Policy Paradigm’. - European Journal of Communication 18 2 181-207.

  • Cunningham Stuart; Silver Jon 2013. Screen Distribution and the New King Kongs of the Online World. London: Palgrave Pivot.

  • Curran James 1997. ‘Rethinking the Media as a Public Sphere’. - Peter Golding Graham Murdock (eds.) The Political Economy of the Media. Vol. 2. Communication and the Common Good. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar 120-150.

  • Donders Karen; Pauwels Caroline; Loisen Jan 2014. The Palgrave Handbooks of European Media Policy. Basingstoke New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Doyle Gillian 2002. Media Ownership: The Economics and Politics of Convergence and Concentration in UK and European Media. London: Sage.

  • Doyle Gillian 2013. Understanding Media Economics. London: Sage.

  • Flew Terry 2007. Understanding Global Media. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Harcourt Alison 2005. The European Union and the Regulation of Media Markets. Manchester New York: Manchester University Press.

  • Ibrus Indrek 2015a. ‘Mida arvata ühtsusest kultuuriturul’. - Sirp 5 June. http://www.sirp.ee/s1-artiklid/c9-sotsiaalia/mida-arvata-uhtsusest-kultuuriturul/

  • Ibrus Indrek 2015b. ‘The Replacement of Media Policies with (Media) Entrepreneurship Policies: A View from Europe’s Periphery’. - International Journal of Digital Television 6 3 311-318.

  • Ibrus Indrek; Merivee Astra 2014. ‘Strategic Management of Crossmedia Production at Estonian Public Broadcasting’. - Baltic Screen Media Review 2 96-120. http://publications.tlu.ee/index.php/bsmr/article/view/222.

  • Ibrus Indrek; Ojamaa Maarja 2014. ‘What is the Cultural Function and Value of European Transmedia Independents?’ - International Journal of Communication 8 2283-2300.

  • Iosifidis Petros 2013. Global Media and Communication Policy. Basingstoke New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Jakubowicz Karol 2003. ‘A Square Peg in a Round Hole: The European Union’s Policy on Public Service Broadcasting’. - Journal of Media Practice 4 3 155-176.

  • Jakubowicz Karol 2007. Rude Awakening: Social and Media Change in Central and Eastern Europe. Cresskill: Hampton Press.

  • Jakubowicz Karol 2009. ‘The Highways and Byways of “Europeanzation” in the Media’. - Central European Journal of Communication 1 2 5-11.

  • Jõesaar Andres 2005. Avalik-õigusliku ringhäälingu legitimatsioon. Eesti kogemus rahvusvahelises kontekstis. MA thesis. Tartu Ülikool. Tartu.

  • Jõesaar Andres 2011. EU Media Policy and Survival of Public Service Broadcasting in Estonia 1994-2010. Dissertationes de mediis et communicationibus Universitatis Tartuensis 14. Tartu: Tartu University Press.

  • Gross Heikko 2012. ‘Tele- ja raadiokanalite programmianalüüs’. - Indrek Ude Peeter Vihalemm (eds.) Eesti Akadeemilise Ajakirjanduse Seltsi aastaraamat 2010/2011. Tartu: Eesti Akadeemiline Ajakirjanduse Selts 73-80.

  • Lowe Gregory F.; Nissen Christian (eds.) 2011. Small Among Giants: Television Broadcasting in Smaller Countries. Göteborg: Nordicom.

  • Lowe Gregory F.; Martin Fiona 2014. ‘The Value and the Values of Public Service Media’. - Gregory F. Lowe Fiona Martin (eds.) The Value of Public Service Media: RIPE@2013 Reader. Göteborg: Nordicom 19-40.

  • Manning Susan 1999. ‘Introduction’. - Journal of World-Systems Research 5 2 137-141.

  • McQuail Denis 2010. McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. 6th ed. New Delhi: Sage.

  • Murdock Graham; Golding Peter 1989. ‘Information Poverty and Political Inequality: Citizenship in the Age of Privatized Communications’. - Journal of Communication 39 3 180-195.

  • Picard Robert G. 2002. The Economics and Financing of Media Companies. New York: Fordham University Press.

  • Puppis Manuel 2009. ‘Media Regulation in Small States’. - International Communication Gazette 71 7 7-17.

  • Rohn Ulrike 2010. Cultural Barriers to the Success of Foreign Media Content: Western Media in China India and Japan. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

  • Rohn Ulrike 2014. ‘Small Market Big Format: Idols in Estonia’. - Baltic Screen Media Review 2 122-137. http://publications.tlu.ee/index.php/bsmr/article/view/22.

  • Seireraport 2005. Televisioon Euroopas: regulatsioon poliitika sõltumatus. S.l.: Eesti Ringhäälingute Liit.

  • Šein Hagi 2005. Suur teleraamat. 50 aastat televisiooni Eestis 1955-2005. Tallinn: TEA.

  • Šein Hagi 2010. ‘Rahvusringhäälingu kuvandimaastik’. - Indrek Ude Peeter Vihalemm (eds.) Eesti Akadeemilise Ajakirjanduse Seltsi aastaraamat 2009/2010. Tartu: Eesti Akadeemiline Ajakirjanduse Selts 92-104.

  • Treufeldt Indrek 2011. ‘Telemaailma uued tsüklonid’. - Indrek Ude Peeter Vihalemm (eds.) Eesti Akadeemilise Ajakirjanduse Seltsi aastaraamat 2010/2011. Tartu: Eesti Akadeemiline Ajakirjanduse Selts 81-90.

  • Tunstall Jeremy 2008. The Media Were American: U.S. Mass Media in Decline. New York: Oxford University Press. Council of Europe 1989. European Convention on Transfrontier Television. http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/html/132.htm.

  • Council of Europe 1994. Resolution n.1 on the future of PSB adopted at the 4th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy. Prague. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/media/doc/DH-MM%282006%29004_en.pdf.

  • Council of Europe 1996. Recommendation No. R (96) 10 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Guarantee of Independence of Public Service Broadcasting. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/media/Doc/CM/Rec%281996%29010&ExpMem_en.asp.

  • Council of Europe 1999. Resolution of the Council and Representatives of the Governments of the Member States concerning Public Service Broadcasting Offi cial Journal C 30/1. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:C:1999:030:TOC.

  • Council of Europe 2007. Recommendation CM/ Rec(2007)3 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the remit of public service media in the information society. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1089759.

  • Council of Europe 2007. Recommendation CM/ Rec(2007)16 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on measures to promote the public service value of the Internet. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1207291.

  • Council of Europe 2009. Public service media governance: looking to the future. 1st Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Media and New Communication Services. Background text. Media and Information Society Division. Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs. Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dc/files/ministerial_conferences/2009_media_communication/default_en.asp.

  • Council of Europe 2009. Recommendation n. 1878 of the Parliamentary Assembly on the funding of public service broadcasting. 25 June. http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/AdoptedText/ta09/EREC1878.htm.

  • Council of Europe 2010. DDH-MC(2010)002 Recommendations and resolutions adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in the field of media and new communication services. Media and Information Society Division. Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs. Council of Europe. Strasbourg.

  • Council of Europe 2010. DH-MC(2010)001 Recommendations and Declarations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the fi eld of media and new communication services. Media and Information Society Division. Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs. Council of Europe. Strasbourg.

  • Council of Europe 2010. DH-MM(2010)001 European Ministerial Conferences on Mass Media Policy & Council of Europe Conferences of Ministers Responsible for Media and New Communication Services. Texts Adopted. Media and Information Society Division. Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs. Council of Europe. Strasbourg.

  • Council of Europe 2011. Recommendation CM/ Rec(2011)7 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on a new notion of media. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1835645.

  • Council of Europe 2012. Recommendation CM/ Rec(2012)1 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on public service media governance. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1908265.

  • Council of Europe 2012. Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on Public Service Media Governance (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 15 February 2012 at the 1134th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies). https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1908241&Site=CM&BackColorInternet=C3C3C3&BackColorIntranet=EDB021&BackColorLogged=F5D383.

  • Council of Europe 2012. Recommendation CM/ Rec(2012)1of the Committee of Ministers to member States on public service media governance (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 15 February 2012 at the 1134th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies). https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1908265&Site=CM&BackColorInternet=C3C3C3&BackColorIntranet=EDB021&BackColorLogged=F5D383.

  • Council of Europe 2013. Recommendation CM/ Rec(2013)1 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on gender equality and media. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=2087343.

  • Eesti Rahvusringhääling 2015. Eesti Rahvusringhäälingu arengukava 2016-2019. http://err.ee/files/ERR-arengukava%202016-2019.pdf.

  • European Broadcsting Union 2014. Funding of Public Service Media 2014. http://www3.ebu.ch/contents/publications/restricted/media-intelligence-service/funding-of-PSM-2014.html.

  • European Commission 1989. Council Directive 89/552/ EEC of 3 October 1989 on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by Law Regulation or Administrative Action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31989L0552:EN:HTML.

  • European Commission 1997. 11997D/PRO/09 Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty on European Union the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts - Protocol annexed to the Treaty of the European Community - Protocol on the system of public broadcasting in the Member States. Official Journal C 340 10/11/1997 P. 0109. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:11997D/PRO/09:EN:HTML.

  • European Commission 2001. Communication from the Commission on the application of State aid rules to public service broadcasting. Offi cial Journal C 320 5-11. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52001XC1115(01).

  • European Commission 2006. White paper on European Communication Policy. European Commission COM(2006) 35 February. http://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/com2006_35_en.pdf.

  • European Commission 2009a. New Communication on State Aid to PSB. European Commission 2 July. http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/competition/ state_aid/cc0014_en.htm.

  • European Commission 2009b. Communication from the Commission on the application of State aid rules to public service broadcasting 2009/C 257/01. Offi cial Journal C 257 27 October. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52009XC1027(01).

  • European Commission (n. d.). Action 82: Implement the Audiovisual Media Services Directive on cultural diversity. Digital Agenda For Europe. A Europe 202202 Initiative. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/pillar-vii-ictenabled-benefits-eu-society/action-82-implementaudiovisual-media-services-directive.

  • European Parliament 1997. Directive 97/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 June 1997 amending Council Directive 89/552/EEC on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31997L0036:EN:HTML.

  • European Parliament 2007. Directive 2007/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007 amending Council Directive 89/552/EEC on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:332:0027:01:EN:HTML.

  • European Parliament 2010. European Parliament resolution of 25 November 2010 on public service broadcasting in the digital era: the future of the dual system. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P7-TA-2010-0438+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN.

  • Eurostat 2015. GDP per capita consumption per capita and price level indices. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/GDP_per_capita_consumption_per_capita_and_price_level_indices#Relative_volumes_of_GDP_per_capita.

  • Kanal 2 AS 2000-2014. Majandusaasta aruanne. https://www.krediidiinfo.ee/.

  • Riigikogu 1994. Ringhäälinguseadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/831359.

  • Riigikogu 1997a. Reklaamiseaduse rakendamisega seotud õigusaktide muutmise seadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=74425.

  • Riigikogu 1997b. Reklaamiseadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/73728.

  • Riigikogu 1999. Ringhäälinguseaduse muutmise seadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=77606.

  • Riigikogu 2000. Ringhäälinguseaduse muutmise seadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=71964&replstring=33.

  • Riigikogu 2001. Ringhäälinguseaduse muutmise seadus. http://www.kul.ee/webeditor/files/Broadcasting_Act.doc.

  • Riigikogu 2002. Ringhäälinguseaduse muutmise seadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=162838.

  • Riigikogu 2007. Estonian Public Broadcasting Act. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/509012014002/consolide.

  • Riigikogu 2010. Media Services Act. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/ee/509072014004/consolide.

  • Riigikogu 2012. Elektroonilise side seaduse § 90 täiendamise seadus. https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/107112012001.

  • Technical Regulatory Authority 2015. Meediateenuste load_nimekiri. http://www.tja.ee/meediateenuste-load-2/.

  • The Maastrich Treaty. Treaty on European Union 1992. http://www.eurotreaties.com/maastrichtext.html.

  • The World Bank 2015. Data. Estonia. http://data.worldbank.org/country/estonia.

  • TNS Emor 2014. Estonian Media Advertising Market. http://www.emor.ee/uudiste-arhiiv/.

  • TNS Emor 2015. TV-audience overview. May. http://www.emor.ee/teleauditooriumi-ulevaademaikuus-2015/.

  • Treaty establishing the European Economic Community 1957. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/treaties/index.htm#founding.

  • TV3 AS 2000-2014. Majandusaasta aruanne. https://www.krediidiinfo.ee/. All sources retrieved on 25 September 2015.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 275 102 6
PDF Downloads 90 36 5