Evaluation of 3D hybrid microfiber/nanofiber scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Open access

Abstract

Fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) applications becomes a very important research topic in present days. The aim of the study was to create and evaluate a hybrid polymeric 3D scaffold consisted of nano and microfibers, which could be used for bone tissue engineering. Hybrid structures were fabricated using rapid prototyping (RP) and electrospinning (ES) methods. Electrospun nanofibrous mats were incorporated between the microfibrous layers produced by RP technology. The nanofibers were made of poly(L-lactid) and polycaprolactone was used to fabricate microfibers. The micro- and nanostructures of the hybrid scaffolds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray microtomographical (μCT) analysis and the mechanical testing of the porous hybrid structures were performed using SkyScan 1172 machine, equipped with a material testing stage. The scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography analyses showed that obtained scaffolds are hybrid nanofibers/microfibers structures with high porosity and interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 500um. Although, connection between microfibrous layers and electrospun mats remained consistent under compression tests, addition of the nanofibrous mats affected the mechanical properties of the scaffold, particularly its elastic modulus. The results of the biocompatibility tests didn’t show any cytotoxic effects and no fibroblast after contact with the scaffold showed any damage of the cell body, the cells had proper morphologies and showed good proliferation. Summarizing, using RP technology and electrospinning method it is possible to fabricate biocompatible scaffolds with controllable geometrical parameters and good mechanical properties.

[1] G.H. Kim, J.G. Son, S.A. Park, and W.D. Kim, “Hybrid process for fabricating 3D hierarchical scaffolds combining rapid prototyping and electrospinning”, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 29, 1577-158 (2008).

[2] M.N. Cooke, J.P. Fisher, D. Dean, C. Rimnac, and A.G. Mikos “Use of stereolithography to manufacture critical-sized 3D biodegradable scaffolds for bone ingrowth”, J. Biomed Mater. Res. Part B: Appl. Biomater. 64B, 65-9 (2002).

[3] D.W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold design and fabrication technologies for engineering tissues-state of art and future perspectives”, J. Biomater. Sci. Polymer Edn. 12 (1), 107-24 (2002).

[4] D.W. Hutmacher, “Scaffold in tissue engineering bone and cartilage”, Biomaterials 21, 2529-43 (2000).

[5] A. Martins, S. Chung, A.J. Pedro, R.A. Sousa, A.P. Marques, R.L. Reis, and N.M. Neves, “Hierarchical starch-based fibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications”, J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 3, 37-42 (2009).

[6] E. Sachlos and J.T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds”, Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29-40 (2003).

[7] T.B.F.Woodfield, J. Malde, J. de Wijn, F. Peters, J. Riesle, and C.A. van Blitterswijk, “Design of porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering using a tree-dimensional fiber-deposition technique”, Biomaterials 25, 4149-61 (2004).

[8] R. M¨ulhaupt, R.Landers, and Y.Thomann, “Biofunctional processing: scaffold design, fabrication and surface modification”, Eur. Cells and Materials 6 (1), 12 (2003).

[9] A. Frenot and I.S. Chronakis, “Polymer nanofibers assembled by electrospinning”, Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science 8, 64-75 (2003).

[10] D. Liang, B.S. Hsiao, and B. Chu, “Functional electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications”, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 59, 1392-1412 (2007).

[11] N. Bhardwaj and S.C. Kundu, “Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique”, Biotechnol Adv. 28 (3), 325-47 (2010).

[12] E. Kijeńska, M. P. Prabhakaran, W. Swieszkowski, K.J. Kurzydlowski, and S. Ramakrishna, “Interaction of Schwann cells with laminin encapsulated PLCL core-shell nanofibers for nerve tissue engineering”, Eur. Polymer J. 50, 30-38 (2014).

[13] E. Kijeńska, M.P. Prabhakaran, W. Swieszkowski, K.J. Kurzydlowski, and S. Ramakrishna, “Electrospun bio-composite P(LLA-CL)/collagen I/collagen III scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering”, J. Biomedical Materials Research: Part B - Applied Biomaterials 100, 1093-1102 (2012).

[14] B.A. Blakeney, A. Tambralli, J.M. Anderson, A. Andukuri, D.J. Lima, D.R. Dean, and H.W. Jun, “Cell infiltration and growth in a low density, uncom pressed three-dimensional electrospun nanofibrous scaffold”, Biomaterials 32, 1583-1590 (2011).

[15] D.W. Hutmacher, T. Schantz, I. Zein, K.W. Ng, S.H. Teoh, and K.C. Tan, “Mechanical properties and cell cultural response of Polycaprolactone scaffolds designed and fabricated via fused deposition modelling”, J. Biomed Mater Res. 55 (2), 203-1 (2001).

[16] W. Tomaszewski, W. Swieszkwoski, M. Szadkowski, M. Kudra, and D. Ciechanska, “Simple methods influencing on properties of elestrosupn fibrous mats”, J. Applied Polymer Science 125, 4261-4266 (2012).

[17] S.H. Park, T.G. Kim, H.C. Kim, D.Y. Yang, and T.G. Park, “Development of dual scale scaffolds via direct polymer melt deposition and electrospinning for applications in tissue regeneration”, Acta Biomaterialia 4, 1198-1207 (2008).

[18] H. Lee, M. Yeo, S.H. Ahn, D.O. Kang, C.H. Jang, H. Lee, G.M. Park, and G.H. Kim, “Designed hybrid scaffolds consisting of polycaprolactone microstrands and electrospun collagennanofibers for bone tissue regeneration”, J. Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials 97B (2), 263-270 (2011).

[19] T.M. O’shea and X. Miao, “Bilayered scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering”, Tissue Engineering: Part B1, 14 (2008).

[20] J.C.Middleton and A.J. Tipton, “Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices”, Biomaterials 21, 2335-2346 (2000).

[21] R. Landers, A. Pfister, U. Hubner, H. John, R. Schmelzeinsen, and R. Mulhaupt, “Fabrication of soft tissue engineering scaffolds by means of rapid prototyping techniques”, J. Materials Science 37 (15), 3107-3116 (2002).

[22] B. Dabrowski, W. Swieszkowski, D. Godlinski, and K.J. Kurzydlowski, “Highly porous titanium scaffolds for orthopedic applications”, J. Biomedical Materials Research B: Applied Biomaterials 95 (1), 53-61 (2010).

[23] J.Y. Rho, R.B. Ashman, and C.H. Turner, “Young’s modulus of trabecular and cortical bone material: ultrasonic and microtensile measurements”, J. Biomechanics 26 (2), 111-116 (1993).

[24] C.J.Middleton and A.J. Tipton, “Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices”, Biomaterials 21, 2335-2346 (2000).

[25] G.T. Christophersona, H. Song, and H.Q. Mao, “The influence of fiber diameter of electrospun substrates on neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation”, Biomaterials 30, 556-564 (2009).

[26] L. Hea, S. Liaoa, D. Quan, K. Maa, C. Chana, S. Ramakrishnaa, and J. Lu, “Synergistic effects of electrospun PLLA fiber dimension and pat tern on neonatal mouse cerebellum c17.2 stem cells”, Acta Biomaterialia 6, 2960-2969 (2010).

[27] E.M. Boutaa, C.W. McCarthy, A. Keima, A. Keima, H.B. Wang, R.J. Gilbert, and J. Goldman, “Biomaterial guides for lymphatic endothelial cell alignment and migration”, Acta Biomaterialia 7, 1104-1113 (2011).

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Technical Sciences

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.156
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.238

CiteScore 2016: 1.50

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.457
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 1.239

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 168 168 19
PDF Downloads 64 64 8