Novel Factors Affecting Shoot Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema × Grandiflora)

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Abstract

Teixeira da Silva J.A., 2014: Novel factors affecting shoot culture of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema × grandiflora) [Alternatyvių standiklių, skystų terpės priedų, CO2 sodrinimo ir kitų faktorių įtaka chrizantemų (Dendranthema × grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitamura) ūglių kultūrų auginimui]. - Bot. Lith., 20(1): 27-40.

Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema × grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitamura) continues to be one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. Although the tissue culture of chrysanthemum has been widely explored, several unexplored topics remain, and, in developing countries, there is always the constant search for reducing the cost of raising tissue cultured plants. In this study, by focusing on a leading market cultivar in Japan, ‘Shuhouno- chikara’, alternatives to agar (as the gelling agent) and sucrose (as the carbon source) for chrysanthemum tissue culture were sought. Both Gellan gum and agar resulted in greater shoot and root production than all other gelling agents tested, including Bacto agar, phytagel, oatmeal agar, potato dextrose agar, barley starch and corn starch. All of the alternative liquid-based medium additives tested (low and full fat milk, Coca-cola ®, coffee, Japanese green, Oolong and Darjeeling teas) negatively impacted plant growth, stunted roots and decreased chlorophyll content (SPAD value) of leaves. There was no difference between plants grown on medium with refined sucrose or table sugar, although poor growth was observed when stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extract was used. Photoautotrophic micropropagation increased significantly the shoot mass relative to control plants, even when the density of plants was doubled. Aeration improved plantlet growth. The tetrazolium test was a simple, but effective essay to see the intensity and strength of root growth in different basal media. MDH activity decreased in the root+shoot extract of plants grown on most alternative media, but remained high on TCSGM (Teixeira’s chrysanthemum shoot growth medium), Gellan gum, aerated and CO2-enriched cultures. A similar trend was observed for deaminating GDH, while an opposite trend was observed for aminating GDH activity. These experiments indicate that tissue culture research for chrysanthemum still provides a rich field for exploration with interesting and valuable results

Santrauka

Chrizantema (Dendranthema × grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitamura) vis dar tebėra viena iš svarbiausių dekoratyvinių augalų pasaulyje. Nors chrizantemų audinių kultūra buvo plačiai naudojama, tačiau dar ne visos galimybės išsemtos ir išsivysčiusiose šalyse nuolatos ieškoma būdų, kaip sumažinti išlaidas auginant augalus iš audinių kultūrų. Šio tyrimo duomenimis, didžiausią dėmesį skiriant pirmaujančiai rinkos veislei Japonijoje ‘Shuhou-no-chikara’, buvo ieškoma alternatyvų agarui (standikliui) ir sacharozei (anglies šaltiniui). Tiek gelano guma, tiek ir agaras lėmė didesnę pumpurų ir šaknų produkciją negu kiti ištirti standikliai, įskaitant Bacto agarą, fitagelį, avižinį agarą, bulvių dekstrozės agarą, miežių ir kukurūzų krakmolą. Visi alternatyvūs skysti terpių priedai (riebus ir pusriebis pienas, Coca-cola®, kava, japoniška žalioji, Oolong and Darjeeling arbatos) neigiamai paveikė augalų augimą, stabdė šaknų augimą ir sumažino lapuose chlorofilo kiekį (SPAD vienetais). Auginant augalus terpėje su valyta sacharoze arba stalo cukrumi skirtumų nepastebėta, tačiau panaudojus stevijos (Stevia rebaudiana) ekstraktą augimas sumažėjo. Naudojant fotoautotrofinį mikrodauginimą, žymiai padidėjo ūglių masė, lyginant su kontroliniu variantu, netgi tuo atveju, kai augalų tankis dvigubai didesnis. Vėdinimas pagerino augalų augimą. Tetrazolio testas buvo paprasta, bet veiksminga priemonė, išryškinanti intensyvų ir stiprų šaknų augimą skirtingose pagrindinėse terpėse. Ekstraktuose, išskirtuose iš augalų šaknų ir ūglių, išaugintų daugelyje alternatyvių terpių, MDH (malato dehidrogenazės) aktyvumas sumažėjo, bet išliko aukštas išaugintų TCŪAT (Tekseiros chrizantemos ūglių auginimo terpėje), gelano guma aeruotose ir CO2 praturtintose kultūrose. Panaši tendencija buvo stebima deamidinant GDH (glutamato dehidrogenazę), tuo tarpu priešinga tendencija pastebėta ją amidinant. Šie chrizantemų audinių kultūrų tyrimai suteikia naujų galimybių vykdyti tolimesnę metodinę paiešką ir gauti įdomių bei vertingų rezultatų.

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