Development of periphytic diatoms on different artificial substrates in the Eastern Adriatic Sea

Open access


The settling of diatoms as fouling organisms on a certain substrate is greatly influenced by substrate characteristics and the preferences of a diatom community and diatom species. A distinction among substrates can be made by analysing the specific abundance and composition of diatoms on different substrates. In this study, 11 different artificial substrates were exposed to a marine environment for a period of 30 days. Abundance and taxonomic composition of periphytic diatoms was determined on each of the substrates and on shoots of the marine seagrass Posidonia oceanica. The aim was to compare diatom community structure on different newly colonized surfaces. On all surfaces examined, periphytic diatoms were the pioneering organisms with differences in quantitative and qualitative composition on the different substrates. Taxonomic analysis of diatom communities on the substrates examined revealed 41 diatom taxa, with the dominant genera Cylindrotheca, Amphora, Nitzschia, Cocconeis and Navicula. Given that all the examined artificial substrates were solid materials, differences in the abundance and species composition of diatoms found between the materials point to the substrates’ physical and chemical characteristics as a major influence on the final settling of diatoms. Knowledge from investigating the settlement of fouling organisms on anthropogenic substrates can have future use in management of waste materials that end up in the marine environment.

BECKER, K. 1996: Exopolysaccharide production and attachment strength of bacteria and diatoms on substrates with different surface tensions. Microbial Ecology 32, 23-33.

BECKER, K., WAHL, M. 1991: Infl uence of substratum surface tension on biofouling of artifi - cial substrata in Kiel Bay (Western Baltic): in situ studies. Biofouling 4, 275-291.

BERGEY, E. A., WEAVER, J. 2004: The infl uence of crevice size on the protection of epilithic algae from grazers. Freshwater Biology 49, 1014-1025.

BERTON, A., ESCADEILLAS, G., DUCHESNE, J. 2004: Cement paste alteration by liquid manure organic acids: Chemical and mineralogical characterization. Cement and Concrete Research, 1823-1835.

BOHLANDER, G. S. 1991: Biofi lm effects on drag: Measurements on ships. Proceedings of »Polymers in a Marine Environment«, 1-34.

BHOSLE, N. B., NANDAKUMAR, K., VENKAT, K., DHOPLE, V. M., SAWANT, S. S., WAGH, A. B., KELKAR, P. G. 1989: Biological and biochemical characterization of microfouling on aluminium panels placed in the Arabian Sea. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy B55 No. 1, 51-56.

BRIAND, J. F., DJERIDI, I., JAMET, D., COUPÉ, S., BRESSY, C., MOLMERET, M. 2012: Pioneer marine biofi lms on artifi cial surfaces including antifouling coatings immersed in two contrasting French Mediterranean coast sites. Biofouling 28, 453-463.

BURIĆ, Z., CAPUT, K., VILIČIĆ, D. 2004: Distribution of the diatom Cocconeis scutellum in the karstic estuary (Zrmanja, eastern Adriatic Sea). Biologia 59, 1-8.

CAILLOU, S., GERIN, P. A., NONCKERMAN, C. J., FLEITH, S., DUPONT-GILLAIN, C. C, LANDOULSI, J., PANCERA, S. M., GENET, M. J, ROUXHET, P. G. 2008: Enzymes at solid surfaces: nature of the interfaces and physico-chemical processes. Electrochimica Acta 54, 116-122.

CAPUT MIHALIĆ, K., VILIČIĆ, D., AHEL, M., BURIĆ, Z., CARIĆ, M. 2005: Periphytic algae development in the upper reach of the Zrmanja Estuary (Eastern Adriatic Coast). Vie et Milieu-Life and Environment, 58, 203-2013.

CASSÉ, F., SWAIN, G. W. 2006: The development of microfouling on four commercial antifouling coatings under static and dynamic immersion. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 53, 179-185.

CATTANEO, A., AMIREAULT, M. C. 1992: How artifi cial are artifi cial substrata for periphyton? Journal of the North American Benthological Society 11, 244-256.

CHARACKLIS, W. G., MCFETERS, G. A., MARSHALL, K. C. 1990: Physiological ecology in biofi lm systems. In: CHARACKLIS, W. G., MARSHALL, K. C. (eds.). Biofi lms, 341-394. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

CHISSICK, S. S. 1985: Asbestos. In: GERHARTZ, W., YAMAMOTO, Y. S., CAMBELL, F. T (eds.) Ullmann‘s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry, 151-167. VCH, Weinheim.

COOKSEY, B., COOKSEY, K. E., MILLER, C. A., PAUL, J. P., WEBSTER, D., RUBIN, R. W. 1984: The attachment of microfouling diatoms. In: COSTLOW, J. D., TIPPER, R. C. (eds.) Marine biodeterioration: an interdisciplinary study, 167-171. US Naval lnstitute Press, Annapolis.

COLLINS, K. J., JENSEN, A. C., ALBERT, S. 1995: A review of waste tyre utilization in the marine environment. Chemistry and Ecology 10, 205-216.

COSTERTON, J. W., LEWANDOWSKE, Z., CALDWELL, D. E., KORBBRE, D. R., LAPPIN-SCOTT, H. M. 1995: Microbial biofi lms. Annual Review of Microbiology 49, 711-745.

DANILOV, R. A., EKELUND, N. G. A. 2002: Effects of short-term and long-term aluminium stress on photosynthesis, respiration, and reproductive capacity in a unicellular green fl agellate (Euglena gracilis). Acta hydrochimica et hydrobiologica 30, 190-196.

DICKSON, W. 1978: Some effects of the acidifi cation of Swedish lakes. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Verein Limnologie 20, 851-856.

DOBRETSOV, S., THOMASON, J. C. 2011: The development of marine biofi lms on two commercial non-biocidal coatings: a comparison between silicone and fl uoropolymer technologies. Biofouling 27, 869-880.

DONLAN, R. M. 2002: Biofi lms: Microbial life on surfaces. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, 881-90.

DRISCOLL, C. T. 1985: Aluminium in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport and effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 63, 93-104.

FLETCHER, M. 1988: Attachment of Pseudomonas fl uorescens to glass and infl uence of electrolytes on bacterium-substratum separation distance. Journal of Bacteriology 170, 2027-2030.

FOLSOM, B. R., POPESCU, N. A., WOOD, J. M. 1986: Comparative study of aluminium and copper transport and toxicity in an acid-tolerant freshwater green alga. Environmental Science & Technology 20, 616-620.

GUALTIERI, M., ANDRIOLLETTI, M., VISMARA, C., MILANI, M., CAMATINI, M. 2005: Toxicity of tire debris leachates. Environment International 31, 723-730.

GARG, A., JAIN, A., BHOSLE, N. B. 2009: Chemical characterization of the marine conditioning fi lm. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 63, 7-11.

HASLE, G.R., SYVERTSEN, E.E., 1997: Marine diatoms. In: C. R. TOMAS (ed.) Identifying marine phytoplankton, 5-385. San Diego Academic Press.

HECKY, R. E, MOPPER, K., KILHAM, P, DEGENS, E. T. 1973: The amino acid and sugar composition of diatom cell-walls. Marine Biology 19, 323-331.

HENTSCHEL, E. 1915: Biologische Unterschungen über den tierischen und pfl anzlichen Bewuchs im Hamburger-Hafen. Zoologischen Museums der Universität Hamburg 33, 1-172.

HUTCHINSON, G. E. 1975: A treatise on limnology: limnological botany, Vol. 3. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

JAIN, R. K. 1990: Copper-resistant microorganisms and their role in the environment. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 6, 356-365.

JELIĆ-MRČELIĆ, G., SLISKOVIĆ, M., ANTOLIĆ, B. 2006: Biofouling communities on test panels coated with TBT and TBT-free copper-based antifouling paints. Biofouling 22, 293-302.

KAHLERT, M., PETTERSSON, K. 2002: The impact of substrate and lake trophy on the biomass and nutrient status of benthic algae. Hydrobiologia 489, 161-169.

KHATOON, H., YUSOFF, F., BANERJEE, S., SHARIFF, M., BUJANG, J. S. 2007: Formation of periphyton biofi lm and subsequent biofouling on different substrates in nutrient enriched brackish water shrimp ponds. Aquaculture 273, 470-477.

KINLOCH, A. J. 1990: Adhesion and adhesive: science and technology. Chapman & Hall, London (UK).

LANDOULSI, J., COOKSEY, K.E., DUPRES, V. 2011: Review - Interactions between diatoms and steinless steel: focus on biofouling and biocorrosion. Biofouling: The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofi lm Research, 27, 1105-1124.

LANE, C. M., TAFFS, K. H. CORFIELD, J. L. 2003: A comparison of diatom community structure on natural and artifi cial substrates. Hydrobiologia 493, 65-79.

LEWANDOWSKA, J., KOSAKOWSKA, A. 2004: Effect of iron limitation on cells of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana Kützing. Oceanologia 46, 269-287.

LUKENS, R. R., SELBERG, C. 2004: Guidelines for marine artifi cial reef materials, 2nd edition. A joint publication of the Gulf and Atlantic states marine fi sheries commissions, No. 121.

MOLINO, P. J., CHILDS, S., HUBBARD, M. R., CAREY, J. M., BURGMAN, M. A., WETHERBEE, R. 2009: Development of the eprimary bacterial microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling release coatings in temperate and tropical environments in Eastern Australia. Biofouling 25, 149-162.

MUNDA, I. 2005: Seasonal fouling by diatoms on artifi cial substrata at different depths near Piran (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic). Acta Adriatica 46, 1337-157.

MURDOCK, J. N., DODDS, W. K. 2007: Linking benthic algal biomass to stream substratum topography. Journal of Phycology 43, 449-460.

NAYAR, S., GOH, B., CHOU, L. 2005: Settlement of marine periphytic algae in a tropical estuary. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 64, 241-248.

PATIL, J., ANIL, A. 2005: Biofi lm diatom community structure: infl uence of temporal and substratum variability. Biofouling 21, 189-200.

PEDERSEN, K. 1990: Biofi lm development on stainless steel and PVC surfaces in drinking water. Water Research 24, 239-243.

PFANNKUCHEN, M., GODRIJAN, J., MARIĆ PFANNKUCHEN, D., IVEŠA, LJ., KRUŽIĆ, P., CIMINIELLO, P., DELL’AVERSANO, C., DELLO IACOVO, E., FATTORUSSO, E., FORINO, M., TARTAGLIONE, L., GODRIJAN, M. 2012: Toxin-producing Ostreopsis cf. ovata are likely to bloom undetected along coastal areas. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 5574−5582.

RAILKIN, A. I. 2004: Marine biofouling: colonization processes and defenses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

REISSER, J., SHAW, J., HALLEGRAEFF, G., PROIETTI, M., BARNES, D. K. A. 2014: Millimetersized marine plastics: a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates. PLoS ONE 9(6): e100289. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100289.

RODRIGUES, L., BICUDO, D. C. 2001: Similarity among periphyton algal communities in a lentic-lotic gradient of the upper Paraná River fl oodplain, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica 24, 235-248.

ROUND, F. E., CRAWFORD, R. M., MANN, D. G. 1990: Diatoms: Biology and Morphology of the Genera. Cambridge University Press.

SCHOLZ, O., BOON, P. I. 1993: Biofi lm development and extracellular enzyme activities on wood in billabongs of south-eastern Australia. Freshwater Biology 30, 359-368.

SCHNEIDER, R.P. 1996: Conditioning fi lm-induced modifi cation of substratum physicochemistry- analysis by contact angles. Journal of Colloid Interface Science 182, 204-213.

SHULTZ, M. P., BENDICK, J. A., HOLM, E. R., HARTEL, W. M. 2011: Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship. Biofouling 27, 87-98.

SONG, B., LEFF, L. G. 2006: Infl uence of magnesium ions on biofi lm formation by Pseudomonas fl uorescens. Microbiological Research, 161, 355-361.

SPEIL, S., LEINERVEBER, J. P. 1969: Asbestos minerals in modern technology. Environmental Research 2, 166.

STAATS, N., DEWINDER, B., STAL, L. J., MUR, L. R. 1999: Isolation and characterization of extracellular polysaccharides from the epipelic diatoms Cylindrotheca closterium and Navicula salinarum. European Journal of Phycology 34, 961-972.

STEVENSON, R. J., GLOVER, R. 1993: Effects of algal density and current on ion transport through periphyton communities. Limnology and Oceanography 38, 1276-1281.

TANIGUCHI, H., TOKESHI, M. 2004: Effects of habitat complexity on benthic assemblages in a variable environment. Freshwater Biology 49, 1164-78.

TANK, J. L., DODDS, W. K. 2003: Nutrient limitation of epilithic and epixylic biofi lms in ten North American streams. Freshwater Biology 48, 1031-1049.

TOTTI, C., CUCCHIARI, E., ROMAGNOLI, T., PENNA, A., 2007: Bloom of Ostreopsis ovata in the Conero Riviera (NW Adriatic Sea). Harmful Algae News 33, 12-13.

TOWNSEND, S. A., GELL, P. A. 2005: The role of substrate type on benthic diatom assemblages in the Daly and Roper Rivers of the Australian wet/dry tropics. Hydrobiologia 548, 101-115.

TOWNSIN, R. L., ANDERSON, C. D. 2009: Fouling control coatings using low surface energy, foul release technology. In: HELLIO, C., YEBRA, D. M. (eds.), Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies, 693-708. Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering.

UTERMÖHL, H. 1958: Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitativen Phytoplankton Methodik. Mitteilungen- Internationale Vereinigung Für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 9, 1-38.

VADEBONCOEUR, Y., LODGE, D. M. 2000: Periphyton production on wood and sediment: substratum- specifi c response to laboratory and whole-lake nutrient manipulations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19, 68-81.

VIDJAK, O., BOJANIĆ, N., MATIJEVIĆ, S., KUŠPILIĆ, G., NINIČEVIĆ GLADAN, Ž., SKEJIĆ, S., GRBEC, B., BRAUTOVIĆ, I. (2012): Environmental drivers of zooplankton variability in the coastal eastern Adriatic (Mediterranean Sea). Acta Adriatica 53, 243-262.

WAHL, M., MARK, O. 1999: The predominantly facultative nature of epibiosis: experimental and observational evidence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 187, 56-66.

WANG, Y., LU, J., MOLLET, J. C., GRETZ, M. R, HOAGLAND, K. D. 1997: Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) (II. 2, 6-Dichlorobenzonitrile inhibition of motility and stalk production in the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes. Plant Physiology 113, 1071-1080.

WEBSTER, N. S., NEGRI, A. P. 2006: Site-specifi c variation in Antarctic marine biofi lms established on artifi cial surfaces. Environmental Microbiology 8, 1177-1190.

WETHERBEE, R., LIND, J.L., BURKE, J., QUATRANO, R. S., 1998: Mini review: The fi rst kiss: es tablishment and control of initial adhesion by raphid diatoms. Journal of Phycology 34, 9-15.

WOODS, D. C, FLETCHER, R. L. 1991: Studies on the strength of adhesion of some common marine fouling diatoms. Biofouling 3, 287-303.

WUSTMAN, B. A., GRETZ, M. R., HOAGLAND, K. D. 1997: Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae)I. A model of adhesives based on chemical characterization and localization of polysaccharides from the marine diatom Achnanthes longipes and other diatoms. Plant Physiology 113, 1059-1069.

YEBRA, D. M., KILL, S., DAM-JOHANSEN, K. 2004: Antifouling technology- past, present and future steps towards effi cient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings 50, 75-104.

ZARGIEL, K. A., COOGAN, J. S., SWAIN, G. W. 2011: Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings. Bioufouling 27, 955-965.

ZHANG, N., LI, H., JEPPESEN, E., LI, W. 2013: Infl uence of substrate type on periphyton biomass and nutrient state at contrasting high nutrient levels in a subtropical shallow lake. Hydrobiologia 710, 129-141.

Acta Botanica Croatica

The Journal of University of Zagreb

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.58
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.828

CiteScore 2017: 0.89

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.260
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.689

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 217 214 53
PDF Downloads 103 102 8