Ecology and niche assembly of campanula tommasiniana, a narrow endemic of mt učka (Liburnian Karst, north-western Adriatic)

Boštjan Surina 1  and Andrej Martinčič 2
  • 1 Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Glagolja{ka 8, SI-6000 Koper, Slovenia / Natural History Museum Rijeka, Lorenzov prolaz 1, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
  • 2 Zaloška cesta 78a, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract

Campanula tommasiniana is a typical chasmophyte occupying calcareous rock crevices and cracks along a wide range of ecological gradients, demonstrating a high degree of ecological plasticity and stress tolerance with regards to abiotic factors. Generally, three ecologically and floristically distinct groups of stands were recognized and typified according to a sigmatistic approach: (a) Seslerio juncifoliae-Campanuletum tommasinianae ass. nov., with stands occupying higher elevated sites fully exposed to sun and strong winds; (b) Seslerio autumnalis-Campanuletum tommasinianae ass. nov., representing stands predominantly developed within thermophytic beech stands, semi- to fully- -shaded by the tree canopy; (c) Cystopteri fragilis-Campanuletum tommasinianae, sciophytic, stands adapted to moisture and coldwith high frequency and coverage of bryophytes. Results of DCA analyses using a unimodal model suggest that Campanula tommasiniana is primarily a plant of open and exposed sites of higher elevation despite being most frequently found in rock crevices within thermophytic and altimontane beech forests.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • AESCHIMANN, D., LAUBER, K.,MOSSER, D. M., THEURILLAT, J.-P., 2004: Flora alpina. Band 1-3. Haupt Verlag, Bern, Stuttgart, Wien.

  • BLONDEL, J.,ARONSON, J. C., 1999: Biology andWildlife of the Mediterranean Region. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

  • BRAAK TER, J. F. C., [MILAUER, P., 2002: CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows. User’s guide to Canoco for Windows: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5). Microcomputer Power (Ithaca, NY, USA), New York.

  • BRANA, S., 2012: J. H. Zanichelli (1622-1729) and the first floristical investigations of Mt. U~ka (in Croatian). In: ARKO-PIJEVAC, M. SURINA, B. (eds.), Natural history researches of the Rijeka region. II. Prirodoslovna biblioteka 15, 29-40. Prirodoslovni muzej Rijeka, Rijeka.

  • BRAUN-BLANQUET, J., 1928: Pflanzensoziologie. Springer, Berlin.

  • CHYTRY, M.,OTÝPKOVÁ, Z., 2003: Plot sizes used for phytosociological sampling of European vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science 14, 563-570.

  • CURRAL, J. E. P., 1987: Atransformation of the Domin scale. Plant Ecology 72, 81-87. ^U[IN, B., 2004: Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb. (in Slovenian). In: ^U[IN, B. (ed.), NATURA 2000 in Slovenia. Vascular plants, 107-113. Zalo`ba ZRC, Ljubljana.

  • DAHL, E., HADA^, E., 1941: Strandgesellschaften der Insel Ostoy im Oslofjord. Eine pflanzensoziologische Studie. Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene B 82, 251-312.

  • DAKSKOBLER, I., 2000: Phytosociological characteristics of the sites of the endemic Moehringia villosa (Wulfen) Fenzl (Caryophyllaceae) (in Slovenian). Razprave IV. razreda SAZU 51, 41-93.

  • DÜLL, R., PAVLETI], Z.,MARTINČIČ, A., 1999: Checklist of the Yugoslavian bryophytes. In: DÜLL, R., GANEVA, A.,MARTIN^I^, A., PAVLETI], Z. (eds.), Contributions to the bryoflora of former Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, 1-94. IDH-Verlag, Bad Münstereifel.

  • ELLIS, L. T.,ALEGRO, A.,BEDNAREK-OCHYRA, H.,OCHYRA, R.,BERGAMINI, A.,COGONI, A., ERZBERGER, P.,GORSKI, P.,GREMMEN, N.,HESPANHOL, H.,VIEIRA, C.,KURBATOVA, L. E., LEBOUVIER, M.,MARTIN^I^, A., ASTHANA, A. K., GUPTA, R., NATH, V., NATCHEVA, R., GANEVA, A.,ÖZDEMIR, T., BATAN, N., PLA[EK, V., PORLEY, R. D., RANDI], M., SAWICKI, J., SCHRODER, V., SERGIO, C., SMITH, V. R., SOLLMAN, P., STEFANUT, S., STEVENSON, C. R., SUAREZ, G. M., SURINA, B., UYAR, G.,MODRI] SURINA, @., 2012: New national and regional bryophyte records 31. Journal of Bryology 34, 123-134.

  • GAJIČ-ČAPKA, M., CINDRI], K.,MIHAJLOVI], D., 2008: Precipitation. Climate atlas of Croatia 1961-1990. 1971-2000., 43-59. Dr`avni hidrometeorolo{ki zavod, Zagreb.

  • GINZBERGER, A., 1921: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Flora der Scoglien und kleineren Inseln Süd-Dalmatiens. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 70, 233-248.

  • GINZBERGER, A., TEYBER, A., 1921: Über einige Centaurea-Arten der adriatischen Küsten und Inseln. II. Zur Kenntnis der Systematik und geographischen Verbreitung des Formenkreises von Centaurea Friderici Vis. und Centaurea crithmifolia Vis. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 70, 29-46.

  • GOMEZ-CAMPO, C., 1985: Plant conservation in the Mediterranean area. Dr. W. Junk, Dodrecht, Boston, Lancaster.

  • GREUTER, W., 1991: Botanical diversity, endemism, rarity and extinction in the Mediterranean area: an analysis based on the published volumes of Med-Checklist. Botanica Chronica 10, 63-79.

  • GROVE, A. T., RACKHAM, O., 2003: The Nature of Mediterranean Europe. An Ecological History. Yale University Press, New Haven, London.

  • HAMMER, O., HARPER, D. A. T., RYAN, P. D., 2001: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4, 1-9.

  • HILL, M. O., PRESTON, C. D., 1998: The geographical relationships of British and Irish bryophytes. Journal of Bryology 20, 127-226.

  • HORVAT, I., 1931: Vegetation studies in mountains of Croatia. II. Scree and rock-crevices communities (in Croatian). Rad Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti 241, 147-206.

  • HORVAT, I., 1962: Mountain vegetation of west Croatia (in Croatian). Acta Biologica II 30, 1-179.

  • HORVATI], S., 1944: Plant life of Istria (in Croatian). Alma Mater Croatica 1-4, 45-56.

  • HORVATI], S., 1960: Contribution to the knowledge of vegetation in southernl part of Primorje area in Croatia (in Croatian). Ljetopis Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti 66, 302-308. HORVATI], S., 1963a: Phytogeography and delimitation of Primorje area in the light of contemporary phytosociological research (in Croatian). Acta Botanica Croatica 22, 27-81.

  • HORVATI], S., 1963b: Vegetation map of the island of Pag with an overview of vegetation of the Primorje area (in Croatian). Prirodoslovna istra`ivanja 33, 1-187.

  • JANCHEN, E., 1910: Edraianthus-Arten der Balkanländer. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines an der Universität Wien 8, 1-40.

  • KORICA, B., 1975: Variabilité et écologie du complexe d’ Asperula staliana. Phyton 17, 137-149.

  • KORICA, B., 1986: Endemic taxa of the Asperula staliana (Rubiaceae) agg. on Adriatic islands (in Croatian). Radovi Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti 424, 357-400.

  • KOVAČIČ, S., 2004: The genus Campanula L. (Campanulaceae) in Croatia, circum-Adriatic and west Balkan region. Acta Botanica Croatica 63, 171-202.

  • LAKU[I], D., RAKI], T., STEFANOVI], S., SURINA, B., STEVANOVI], V., 2009: Edraianthus x lakusicii (Campanulaceae) a new intersectional natural hybrid: morphological and molecular evidence. Plant Systematics and Evolution 280, 77-88.

  • LAVERGNE, S., THOMPSON, J. D.,GARNIER, E.,DEBUSSCHE, M., 2004: The biology and ecology of endemic and widespread plants: A comparative study of trait variation in 20 congeneric pairs. Oikos 107, 505-518.

  • LEPŠ, J., ŠMILAUER, P., 2003: Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  • LIBER, Z.,KOVA^I], S.,NIKOLI], T., LIKI], S.,RU[AK, G., 2008: Relations between western Balkan endemic Campanula L. (Campanulaceae) lineages: Evidence from chloroplast DNA. Plant Biosystems 142, 40-50.

  • LOVRIČ, A. @., 1971: Sur la Centaurea kartschiana du Kvarner. Acta Botanica Croatica 30, 135-139.

  • LOVRI], A. @., 1992: Biosystematics, endemism and sinecology of the genus Centaurea in the Primorje karst area (in Croatian). Bilten Ekologa 5, 101-106.

  • LOVRI], A. @., KORICA, B., 1981: Adriatic endemics. 1. Speciation centers and origin of relics. Rapport Commission Internationale pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée 27, 64-65.

  • MARTINČIČ, A., 1966: Elements of the Yugoslav bryoflora with remarks on their chorology and ecology (in Slovenian). Razprave IV razreda SAZU 9, 5-70.

  • MARTINČIČ, A., 2003: Annotated checklist of Sloveninan mosses (Bryopsida). Hacquetia 2, 91-166.

  • MARTINČIČ, A., 2011: Annotated checklist of Slovenian liverworts (Marchantiophyta) and hornworts (Anthocerotophyta). Scopolia 72, 1-38.

  • MARTINI, F., 1990: Distribution and Phytosociological Behaviour of Moehringia tommasinii March. Studia Geobotanica 10, 119-132.

  • MAYER, E., 1960: Südöstliches Alpenvorland - ein pflanzengeographisches Prachtgebiet. Jubiläumsjahrbuch des Ver.z.Schutz.d.Alpenfpflanzen und - Tiere 25, 1-9. MAYER, E., BLE^I], V., 1969: Zur Taxonomie und Chorologie von Edraianthus sectio Uniflori. Phyton 13, 241-247.

  • MEDAIL, F., VERLAQUE, V., 1997: Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from S. E. France and Corsica. Implications for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 80, 269-281.

  • MÜLLER-DOMBOIS, D., ELLENBERG, H., 1974: Aims and methods in vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

  • NARODNE NOVINE, 1999: Uredba o osnivanju Javne ustanove »Park prirode U~ka« (NN 096/1999).

  • PARK, J.-M., KOVAČIČ, S., LIBER, Z., EDDIE, W. M. M., SCHNEEWEISS, G. M., 2006: Phylogeny and Biogeography of Isophyllous Species of Campanula (Campanulaceae) in the Mediterranean Area. Systematic Botany 31, 862-880.

  • PELCER, Z., 1983: Phytosociological characteristics of stands of bay Laurel in the areas of Istria and Kvarner (in Croatian). Zbornik radova Zbornika o Robertu Visianiju [iben- ~aninu, [ibenik, 229-235.

  • PIGNATTI, S., 2005: Valori di bioindicazione delle piante vascolari della flora d’Italia. Braun-Blanquetia 39, 1-97.

  • PIGNATTI, E., PIGNATTI, S., 1978: Über die Campanula morettiana - Vegetation in den Dolomiten. Poro~ila Vzhodnoalpsko-dinarskega dru{tva za prou~evanje vegetacije 14, 279-291.

  • QUEZÉL, P., 1985: Definition of the Mediterranean region and origin of its flora. In: GOMEZ-CAMPO, C. (ed.), Plant conservation in the Mediterranean area, 9-24. Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht.

  • QUEZÉL, P.,MEDAIL, F., 2003: Ecologie et biogéographie des forests du bassin méditerranéen. Elsevier, Paris.

  • RADI], J., 1981: Endemic taxa of the genus Centaurea in Biokovo mountain range (in Croatian). Acta Biokovica 1, 71-145.

  • RAUNKIAER, C., 1907: Planterigets Livsformer og deres Betydning for Geografien. Gyldendalske Boghandel-Nordisk Forlag, Kobenhavn and Kristiania.

  • SURINA, B., 2005: Subalpine and alpine vegetation of the Krn area in the Julian Alps (in Slovenian). Scopolia 57, 1-222.

  • SURINA, B.,MARTINČIČ, A., 2012: Chasmopyhtes on screes? Arule and not an exception in the vegetation of the Karst (southwest Slovenia). Plant Biosystems 146, 1078-1091.

  • SURINA, B. 2013: Discovery, updated distribution area and habitat preferences of Campanula tommasiniana, a narrow endemic of Mt U~ka (Liburnian karst, north-western Adriatic). Natura Croatica 22, 171-180.

  • ŠAJNA, N., KAVAR, T., [U[TAR-VOZLI^, J., KALIGARI^, M., 2012: Population genetics of the narrow endemic Hladnikia pastinacifolia Rchb. (Apiaceae) indicates survival in siru during the Pleistocene. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Botanica 54, 1-13.

  • ŠIKIČ, D., PLENIČAR, M., 1975: Supplement to geological map Ilirska Bistrica L 33-89 (in Croatian). Savezni geolo{ki zavod, Beograd.

  • ŠIKIČ, D.,PLENIČAR,M.,[PARICA,M., 1967: Basic geological map 1:100000 L33-89 Ilirska Bistrica. Institut za geolo{ka istra`ivanja, Zagreb, Geolo{ki zavod, Ljubljana, Zagreb.

  • ŠIKIČ, D., POL[AK, A., 1973: Supplement to geological map Labin L 33-101 (in Croatian). Savezni geolo{ki zavod, Beograd.

  • ŠIKIČ, D., POL[AK, A.,MAGA[, N., 1963: Basic geological map 1:100000 L 33-101 Labin. Institut za geolo{ka istra`ivana Zagreb, Beograd.

  • ŠUGAR, I., 1970: Vegetation profile of Mt. U~ka with the vegetation map of the area (in Croatian). Poro~ila Vzhodnoalpsko-dinarskega dru{tva za prou~evanje vegetacije 11, 213-218.

  • ŠUGAR, I., 1971: Mt. U~ka - a new locality for edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass. var. krasense (Derg.) Hay.) in Croatia. Acta Botanica Croatica 30, 153-156.

  • ŠUGAR, I., 1984: New insights into the vegetation and phytogeography of the Istrian peninsula (in Croatian). Acta Botanica Croatica 43, 225-234.

  • TEYBER, A., 1913: Beitrag zur Flora Österreichs. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 58, 486-493.

  • TOPIČ, J.,NIKOLI], T.,VUKOVI], N., 2009: U~ka and ]i}arija (in Croatian). In: NIKOLI], T., TOPI], J.,VUKOVI], N. (eds.), Importan plant areas in Croatia, 423-430. Prirodoslovno- -matemati~ki fakultet Sveu~ili{ta u Zagrebu i [kolska knjiga d.o.o., Zagreb.

  • TRINAJSTIČ, I., 1980: Aperçu syntaxonomique de la vegetation des rochers de l’espace Adriatique. Studia Geobotanica 1, 203-212.

  • TRINAJSTIČ, I., 2008: Plant communities of Croatia. Akademija {umarskih znanosti, Zagreb.

  • TRINAJSTIČ, I.,PAVLETI], Z., 2012: History of botanical researches in the Croatian part of the Istrian peninsula (in Croatian). In: ARKO-PIJEVAC, M. SURINA, B. (eds.), Natural history researches of the Rijeka region. II. Prirodoslovna biblioteka 15, 13-28. Prirodoslovni muzej Rijeka, Rijeka.

  • TROTTER, A., 1912: Gli elementi Balcanico-Orientali della Flora Italiana e l’ipotesi dell’ »Adriatide«. Atti del Reale Istituti d’incoraggiamento di Napoli.Serie VI. 9, 1-119.

  • TUTIN, T. G., HEYWOOD, V. H., BURGES, N. A., VALENTINE, D. H.,WALTERS, S. M.,WEBB, D. A., 2001: Flora Europaea on CD-ROM. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  • VUKELIČ, J., 2012: Forest vegetation of Croatia (in Croatian). Sveu~ili{te u Zagrebu, [umarski fakultet, Dr`avni zavod za za{titu prirode, Zagreb.

  • WEBER, H. E., MORAVEC, J., THEURILLAT, J.-P., 2000: International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. 3rd edition. Journal of Vegetation Science 11, 739-768.

  • WESTHOFF, V., VAN DERMAAREL, E., 1973: The Braun-Blanquet approach. In: WHITTAKER, R. H. (ed.), Ordination and Classification of Communities. Handbook of Vegetation Science 5., 619-726. Dr. W. Junk b.v.-Publishers, The Hague.

  • WETTSTEIN, R., 1887: Monographie der Gattung Hedraeanthus. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 53, 185-212.

  • WILLNER, W., 2006: The association concept revisited. Phytocoenologia 36, 67-76.

  • ZANINOVIČ, K., 2008: Air temperature. Climate atlas of Croatia 1961-1990. 1971-2000., 27-41. Dr`avni hidrometeorolo{ki zavod, Zagreb.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search