Growth and photosynthesis of Lemna minor L. exposed to different light conditions and sucrose supplies

Open access


Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) is a model plant suitable for investigation into plant physiology, biochemistry and ecotoxicology. Depending on the type of the experiment, duckweed is cultivated on different nutrient media under various chamber conditions. In our work, duckweed was cultivated on Pirson-Seidel’s nutrient solution supplemented with 5, 7.5 or 10 g L-1 sucrose under cool white (CW) or Gro-Lux (GL) light sources. When different light sources and sucrose supplies are compared, a significant stimulative effect of GL light on duckweed grown on 7.5 and 10 g L-1 sucrose was seen to start on day 9. Considering photosynthetic performance the results showed that there were no significant differences in maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) after 7 and 16 days of exposure, regardless of light source and sucrose supply. Effective quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) decreased only after 16 days of exposure to 5 g L-1 sucrose under CW light. The higher growth rate and photosynthetic performance in plants exposed to GL light is a consequence of its spectral distribution resembling the action spectrum of photosynthesis. Furthermore, enhanced growth noticed in plants cultivated on higher sucrose contents (7.5 and 10 g L-1) indicated the promotive effect of sucrose in plants grown under low light conditions.

ANDERSON, J. M.,CHOW,W. S.,GOODCHILD, D. J., 1988: Thylakoid membrane organisation in sun/shade acclimation. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 15, 11-26.2

ARTETXE, U., GARCÍA-PLAZAOLA, J. I., HERNÁNDEZ, A., BECERRIL, J. M., 2002: Low light grown duckweed plants are more protected against the toxicity induced by Zn and Cd. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40, 859-863.

BALEN, B., TKALEC, M., PEHAREC ŠTEFANIĆ, P., VIDAKOVIĆ-CIFREK, Ž., KRSNIK-RASOL, M., 2012: In vitro conditions affect photosynthetic performance and crassulacean acid metabolism in Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. tissues. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 34, 1883-1893.

CHI, W., SUN, X., ZHANG, L., 2012: The roles of chloroplast proteases in the biogenesis and maintenance of photosystem II. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1817, 239-246.

DEMMIG-ADAMS, B, ADAMSW.W. III, 1992: Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high light stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43, 599-626.

EBERIUS, M., 2001: Duckweed growth inhibition tests and standardization. LemnaTec GmbH, Würselen, Germany (Retrieved January 22, 2013 from

GERM, M.,GABERŠČIK, A., 1999: The Effect of UV-B radiation and nutrient availability on growth and photochemical efficiency of PS II in common duckweed. Phyton 39, 187-191.

FRICK, H., 1994: Heterotrophy in the Lemnaceae. Journal of Plant Physiology 144, 189-193.

GYUNTER, E. A., POPEIKO, O. V., OVODOV, Y. S., 2008: Production of polysaccharides by callus cultures of common duckweed. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 44, 104-109.

HDIDER, C., DESJARDINS, Y., 1994: Effects of sucrose on photosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity of in vitro cultured strawberry plantlets. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 36, 27-33.

HUEBERT, D. B., SHAY, J.M., 1993: Considerations in the assessment of toxicity using duck weeds. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12, 481-483.

ISO 20079, 2004:Water quality - determination of the toxic effect of water constituents and waste water to duckweed (Lemna minor) - Duckweed growth inhibition test. International Standard ISO 20079: 2004. Geneva, Switzerland.

JO E. A., TEWARI R. K., HAHN, E. J., PAEK K.Y., 2009: In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of Alocasia amazonica plantlets. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 96, 307-315.

KONDO, T., 1988: Phase shift of the circadian rhythm of Lemna caused by pulses of a leucine analog, trifluoroleucine. Plant Physiology 88, 953-958.

KRAJNČIČ, B., DEVIDÉ, Z., 1980: Report on photoperiodic responses in Lemnaceae from Slovenia, Berichte des Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel, Zürich 47, 75-86.

LEWIS, M. A., 1995: Use of freshwater plants for phytotoxicity testing: A review. Environmental Pollution 87, 319-336.

MARDANOV, A. V.,RAVIN, N. V.,KUZNETSOV, B. B., SAMIGULLIN, T. H.,ANTONOV, A. S.,KOLGANOVA, T. V., SKYABIN, K. G., 2008: Complete sequence of the duckweed (Lemna minor) chloroplast genome: structural organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms. Journal of Molecular Evolution 66, 555-564.

MAXWELL K., JOHNSON, G. N., 2000: Chlorophyll fluorescence - a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 659-668.

MKANDAWIRE, M.,DUDEL, E. G., 2007: Are Lemna spp. effective phytoremediation agents? Bioremediation, Biodeiversity and Bioavailability 1, 56-71.

NAUMANN, B.,EBERIUS,M.,APPENROTH, K-J., 2007: Growth rate based dose-response relationships and EC-values of ten heavy metals using the duckweed growth inhibition test (ISO 20079) with Lemna minor L. clone St. Journal of Plant Physiology 164, 1656-1664.

OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, No. 221, 2006: Lemna sp. Growth Inhibition Test, adopted March 23, 2006.

PIRSON, A., SEIDEL, F., 1950: Cell metabolism and physiology in Lemna minor root deprived of potassium and calcium, in German (Zell- und stoffwechselphysiologiche Untersuchungen an der Wurzel von Lemna minor unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Kaliumund Calciummangel). Planta 38, 431-473.

RAPPARINI, F.,TAM, Y. Y.,COHEN, J. D.,SLOVIN, J. P., 2002: Indole-3-acetic acid metabolism in Lemna gibba undergoes dynamic changes in response to growth temperature. Plant Physiology 128, 1410-1416.

RITCHIE, G. A., 2006: Chlorophyll fluorescence: What is it and what do the numbers mean? In: RILEY, L. E., DUMROESE, R. K., LANDIS, T. D. (tech. coords.) National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations, 34-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

SHERAMETI, I., SOPORY, S. K., TREBICKA, A., PFANNSCHMIDT, T., OELMÜLLER, R., 2002: Photosynthetic electron transport determines nitrate reductase gene expression and activity in higher plants. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 46594-46600.

SOMSRI, K., PINYOPICH, P.,MOHAMMED,W. S., 2010: Effects of fluorescent lighting on in vitro micropropagation of Lemna minor. Proceedings SPIE 7743, Southeast Asian International Advances in Micro/Nanotechnology, 7743.

TKALEC, M.,MALARIĆ, K., PEVALEK-KOZLINA, B., 2007: Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L. Science of the Total Environment 388, 78-89.

WANG,W., 1990: Literature review on duckweed toxicity testing. Environmental Research 52, 7-22.

WANG, W.,WILLIAMS, J.M., 1988: Screening and biomonitoring of industrial effluents using phytotoxicity tests. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 7, 645-652.

WU, F. B.,ZHANG, G. P.,YU, J. S. 2003: Genotypic Differences in effect of Cd on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 71, 1272-1281.

ZHANG, Y., HU, Y., YANG, B.,MA, F., LU, P., LI, L.,WAN, C., RAYNER, S., CHEN, S., 2010: Duckweed (Lemna minor) as a model plant system for the study of human microbial pathogenesis. PLoS ONE 5, e13527.

Acta Botanica Croatica

The Journal of University of Zagreb

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.58
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.828

CiteScore 2017: 0.89

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.260
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.689


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 296 296 46
PDF Downloads 83 83 23