Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo (Bacillariophyceae) diversity and domoic acid accumulation in tuberculate cockles and sweet clams in M’diq Bay, Morocco

Open access


The diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) and accumulation of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in two types of shellfish; tuberculate cockles (Acanthocardia tuberculata) and sweet clams (Challista chione) was explored in M’diq Bay,Morocco during 2007. The highest abundances of Pseudo-nitzschia were found during the period from March to October, with peaks occurring in May and September. Toxin analysis showed an accumulation of domoic acid in shellfish sampled during spring and autumn. The maximum toxin concentration was 4.9 mg DAg-1 of the whole tissue recorded in sweet clam during spring. Using transmission electron microscopy, thirteen Pseudo-nitzschia species were identified, eight of which are known as producers of domoic acid: P. multistriata, P. cuspidata, P. galaxiae, P. multiseries, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens var. aveirensis, P. calliantha and P. fraudulenta. The five non- toxic species observed were P. subpacifica, P. arenysensis, P. dolorosa, P. subfraudulenta, and P. cf. caciantha

  • AKALLAL, R.,CHANTAL, B., JACQUELINE, F.,THIERRY, C.,MOURADI,A., 2002: Contribution à l’étude du phytoplancton de la côte atlantique marocaine, II. Le Genre Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Cryptogamie, Algologie 23, 187-202.

  • ALVAREZ, G., URIBE, E., QUIJANO-SCHEGGIA, S., RIVERA, A. L., MARINO, C., BLANCO, J., 2009: Domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia australis and Pseudo-nitzschiacalliantha isolated from North Chile. Harmful Algae 8, 938-945.

  • AMATO, A., LÜDEKING, A.,KOOISTRA,W. H., 2010: Intracellular domoic acid production in Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata isolated from the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Toxicon 55,157-161.

  • AMZIL, Z., JAQUELINE, F.,DOMINIQUE, L. G.,CHANTAL, B., 2001: Domoic acid accumulation in French shellfish in relation to toxic species of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P.pseudodelillcatissima. Toxicon 39, 1245-1251.

  • BARGU, S., KORAY, T., LUNDDHOLM, N., 2002: First report of Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hassle 2003, a new potentially toxic species from Turkish coasts. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 19, 479-483.

  • BATES, S. S.,BIRD, C. J.,DE FREITAS, A. S.W., FOXALL, L. A.,HANIC, L. A. JOHNSON, G. R., MCCULLOCH, A. W.,ODENSE, P., POCKLINGTON, R.,QUILLIAM, M. A., SIM, P. G., SMITH, J. C., SUBBA, RAO, D. V.,TODD, E. C. D.,WALTER, J. A.,WRIGHT, J. L. C., 1989: Pennate diatom Nitzschia pungens as the primary source of domoic acid, a toxin in shellfish from eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46, 1203-1215.

  • BESIKTEPE, S., LARISA, R., DILEK, E., DORUK, Y., ARIFE, Z., VITALY, R., RAISA, L., 2008: Domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup et Hasle (bacillariophyta) isolated from the Black Sea. Harmful Algae 7, 438-442.

  • BOURHILI, E., 1984: Intoxication alimentaire par les Moules. (51 cas). Agadir octobre et novembre 1982. Thèse no. 33, Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, Rabat.

  • CAROPPO, C.,CONGESTRI, R.,BRACCHINI, L.,ALBERTANO, P., 2005: On the presence of Pseudo--nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, moestrup et Hasle and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima (Cleve) Heiden in the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Journal of Plankton Research 27, 163-774.

  • CERINO, F., ORSINI, L., SARNO, D., CARMELA, D. A., TARTAGLIONE, L., ZINGONE, A, 2005: The alternation of different morphotypes in the seasonal cycle of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia galaxiae. Harmful Algae 4, 33-48.

  • ESSAID, E. F., 1977: L’intoxication paralytique par les fruits de mer. Thèse no. 44, Faculté Médecine et Pharmacie, Rabat.

  • HASLE, G. R., 2002: Are most of the domoic acid-producing species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia cosmopolites? Harmful Algae 1, 137-146.

  • ILLOUL, H.,MASO, M., FORTUNO, J. M., CROS, L.,MORALES-BLAKE, A., SÉRIDJI, R., 2008: Potentially harmful microalgae in coastal waters of the Algiers area (Southern Mediterranean Sea). Cryptogamie, Algologie 29, 261-278.

  • INÈS, S.,ASMA, S. H.,BATES, S. S., 2006: First detection of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia Calliantha in Bizert lagoon, Tunisia. Harmful Algae News 30, 8-9.

  • KANIOU-GRIGORIADOU, I., MOURATIDOU, T., KATIKOU, P., 2005: Investigation on the presence of domoic acid in Greek shellfish. Harmful Algae 4, 717-723.

  • KLEIN, C., CLAQUIN, P., BOUCHART, V., LE ROY, B.,VÉRON, B., 2010: Dynamics of Pseudo--nitzschia spp. and domoic acid production in a macrotidal ecosystem of the Eastern English Channel (Normandy, France). Harmful Algae 9, 218-226.

  • LJUBEŠIĆ, Z.,BOSAK, S.,VILI^I], D.,KRALJ BOROJEVI], K.,MARI], D.,GODRIJAN, J.,UJEVI], I., PEHAREC, P.,DJAKOVAC, T., 2011: Ecology and taxonomy of potentially toxic Pseudo--nitzschia species in Lim Bay (north-eastern Adriatic Sea).Harmful Algae 10, 713-722.

  • LOUREIRO, S.,GARÉS, E., FERNANDZ, T.M.,VAQUÉ, D.,CAMP, J., 2009: Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in the Ebro Delta (Alfacs Bay, NW Mediterranean Sea). Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science 83, 539-549.

  • LUNDHOLM, N., (ed.) 2011: Bacillariophyta, in IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from HAB LUNDHOLM, N.,NEILS, D.,OJVIND, M., 2002: Phylogeny of the Bacillariaceae with emphasis on the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) based on partial LSU rDNA. Journal of Phycology 37, 115-134.

  • MARGALEF, R., 1969: Composicion especifica del fitoplancton de la costa Catalano-levantina (mediterraneo occidental)) en 1962-1967. Investigacion of Pesquera 33, 345-380.

  • MARIĆ, D.,LJUBE[I], Z.,GODRIJAN, J.,VILI^I], D.,UJEVI], I.,PRECALI, R., 2011: Blooms of the potentially toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle in coastal waters of the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 92, 323-331.

  • MARTIN, J. L.,HAYA, K., BURRIDGE, L. E.,WILDISH, D. J., 1990: Nitzschia pseudodelicatissma a source of domoic acid in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada.Marine Ecology Progress Series 67, 177-182.

  • MASSUTI, M.,MARGALEF, R., 1950: Introducciyn al studio del plankton marino. Patronato juan de la Cierva de Investigacion técnica, Barcelona.

  • MOSCHANDREOU, K. K., PAPAEFTHIMIOU, D.,KATIKOU, P.,KALOPESA, E., PANOU, A.,NIKOLAIDIS, G., 2010: Morphology, phylogeny and toxin analysis of Pseudo-nitschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from the Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Phycologia 49, 260-273.

  • ORSINI, L.,DIANA, S.,GABREILLE, P.,ROBERTO, P., JENS, D.,MARINA,M., 2002: Toxic Pseudo--nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae) from the Gulf of Naples: morphology, toxin analysis and phylogenetic relationships with other Pseudo-nitzschia species. European Journal of Phycology 37, 247-257.

  • PAN, Y., SUBBA, R. D. V.,MANN, K. H.,LI,W. K.W.,HARRISON,W. G., 1996: Effects of silicate limitation on production of domoic acid, a neurotoxin, by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. II. Continuous culture studies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 131, 235-243.

  • PAN, Y., MICHAEL, L. P., MARK, B., MOELLER, P. D. R., QUAY DORTCH, POWELL, C. L., DOUCETTE, G. J., 2001: Pseudo-nitzschia sp. cf. pseudodelicatissima a confirmed producer of domoic acid from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 22, 83-92.

  • QUIJANO-SCHEGGIA, S., ESTHER, G., NAGORE, S., KEES, V. L., EVA, F., KARL, A., JOSÉ- -MANUEL, F., JORDI, C., 2008: Identification and characterisation of the dominant Pseudo-nitzschia species (Bacillariophyceae) along the NE Spanish coast (Catalonia, NW Mediterranean). Scientia Marina 72, 343-359.

  • QUIJANO-SCHEGGIA, S., ESTHER, G.,KARL, B. A., PABLO, D. L. I., JORGE, D., JOSE-MANUEL, F., JORDI, C., 2010: Pseudo-nitzschia species on the Catalan coast: characterization and contribution to the current knowledge of the distribution of this genus in the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina 74, 395-410.

  • QUILLIAM, M. A.,XIE, M.,HARDSTAFF,W. R., 1995: Rapid extraction and cleanup for liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in unsalted food. Journal of Aoac International 78, 543-554.

  • RHODES, L. L., JANET, A., CHRIS, S., 2000: Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata (Bacillariophyceae) in New Zealand; New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34, 463-467.

  • RHODES, L. L.,WHITE, D., SYHRE, M., ATKINSON, M., 1996: Pseudonitzschia species isolated from New Zealand coastal waters: domoic acid production in vitro and links with shellfish toxicity. In: YASUMOTO, T., OSHIMA, Y., FUKUYO, Y. (ed), Harmful and toxic algal blooms, 155-158. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris.

  • RHODES, L. L., 1998: Identification of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) in New Zealand coastal waters, using lectins; New Zealand Journal ofMarine and Freshwater Research 32, 537-544.

  • SAGOU, R.,AMNHIR, R.,TALEB, H.,VALE, P.,BLAGHEN, M.,LOUTFI,M., 2005: Comparative study on differential accumulation of PSP toxins between cockle (Aconthocardia tubercula) and sweet clam (Callista chione). Toxicon 46, 612-618.

  • SARNO, D., DAHLMANN, J., 2000: Production of domoic acid in another species of Pseudo--nitzschia: P. multistriata in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea). Harmful Algae News 21.

  • SPATHARIS, S.,DANIELIDIS, D. B.,TSIRTSIS, G., 2007: Recurrent Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha (Bacillariophyceae) and Alexandrium insuetum (Dinophyceae) winter blooms induced by agricultural runoff. Harmful Algae 6, 811-822.

  • TALEB, H., VALE, P., JAIME, E., BLAGHEN, M., 2001: Study of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin profile in shellfish from the Mediterranean shore of Morocco. Toxicon 39, 1855-1861.

  • TRAINER, V. L.,ADAMS, N. G.,BILL, B. D., STEHR, C. M.,WEKELL, J. C.,MOELLER, P.,BUSMAN, M., WOODRUFF, D., 2000: Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones. Limnology and Oceanography 45, 1818-1833.

  • TRAINER, V. L.,HICKEY, B. M.,LESSARD, E. J.,COCHLAN,W. P.,TRICK, C. G.,WELLS, M. L., MACFADYEN, A.,MOORE S. K., 2009: Variability of Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid in the Juan de Furca eddy region and its adjacent shelves. Limnology and Oceanography 51, 289-308.

  • UJEVIĆ, I., NINČEVIĆ-GLADAN, @., ROJE, R., SKEJI], S., ARAPOV, J., MARASOVI], I., 2010: Domoic acid - A new toxin in the Croatian Adriatic shellfish toxin profile. Molecules 15, 6835-6849.

  • UTERMÖHL, H., 1958: Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitative Phytoplankton Methodik. Mitteilungen Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 9, 1-38.

  • WRIGHT, J. L. C.,BOYD, R. K.,FREITAS, A. S.W.,FALK,M.,FOXALL, R. A., JAMIESON,W. D., LAYOCK, M. V., MCCULLOCH, A. W., MACLNNES, A. G., ODENSE, P., PATHAK, V. P., QUILLIAM, M. A., RAGAN, M. A., SIM, P. G., THIBAUT, P.,WALTER, J. A., GILGAN, M., RICHARD, D. J. A.,DEWAR, D., 1989: Identification of domoic acid, a neurotoxic amino acid, in mussels from eastern Prince Edward Island. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 67, 481-490.

  • ZAPATA, M., RODRIGUEZ, F., FRAGA, S., BARRA, L., RUGGIERO, M. V., 2011: Chlorophyll C pigment patterns in 18 species (51 strains) of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae). Journal of Phycology 47, 1274-1280.

  • ZINGONE, A., SIANO, R., D’ALELIO, D., SARNO, D., 2006: Potentially toxic and harmful microalgae from coastal waters of the Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Harmful Algae 5, 321-337.

Acta Botanica Croatica

The Journal of University of Zagreb

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.516
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.694

CiteScore 2016: 0.79

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.269
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.722


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 7 7 7
PDF Downloads 2 2 2