Maize seedlings were subjected to concentrations of 0 and 100mMof NaCl in Hoagland’s nutrient solution medium in plastic pots containing perlite. Two levels of asparagine (5 and 10 mM) and glycerol (20 and 40 mM) were sprayed onto the leaves of maize seedlings 10 days after germination. Saline stress caused considerable decline in total dry mass, chlorophyll content and relativewater content in the maize plants. It increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase as well as electrolyte leakage, but did not alter the activity of non-specific peroxidise. Foliar application of asparagine or glycerol was found to be effective in checking shoot growth inhibition under NaCl stress. Exogenously applied asparagine or glycerol reduced superoxide dismutase, non-specific peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in salt-stressed maize plants compared to those not treated with these organic compounds. Salinity increased Na+ contents but reduced those of K+, Ca2+ and P in the roots of the used genotype of maize. Foliar application of asparagine or glycerol increased the contents of K+, Ca2+ and P, but it reduced that of Na+ in salt-stressed maize plants as compared to those of the salt-stressed plants not supplied with glycerol or asparagine. Glycerol was more effective than asparagine in improving salinity tolerance of maize plants in terms of growth and physiological attributes measured in the present study
AGARWAL, S., PANDEY, V., 2004: Antioxidant enzyme responses to NaCl stress in Cassiaangustifolia. Biologia Plantarum 48, 555-560.
ALBERT, R., POPP,M., 1977: Chemical composition of halophytes from the Neusiedler Lake region in Austria. Oecologia Plantarum 27, 157-170.
ALBERTYN, J., HOHMANN, S., THEVELEIN, J. M., PRIOR, B. A., 1994: GPD1, which encodes glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase, is essential for growth under osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its expression is regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol response pathway. Molecular cell biology 14, 4135-4144.
ALI, R. M., ELFEKY, S. S.,ABBAS, H., 2008: Response of salt-stressed Ricinus communis L: to exogenous application of glycerol and/or aspartic acid. Journal of Biological Sciences 8, 171-175.
ASHRAF, M., 2009: Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnology Advances 27, 84-93.
ASHRAF, M.,ALI, Q., 2008: Relative membrane permeability and activities of some antioxidant enzymes as the key determinants of salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany 63, 266-273.
ASHRAF, M.,HARRIS, P. J. C., 2004: Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Science 166, 3-16.
ASHRAF,M.,ATHAR, H. R.,HARRIS, P. J. C.,KWON, T. R., 2008: Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. Advances in Agronomy 97, 45-110.
ASHRAF, M., FOOLAD, M. R., 2007: Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59, 206-216.
BARRS, H. D.,WEATHERLEY, P. E., 1962:Are-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Australian Journal of Biology Sciences 15, 413-428.
BATES, L. S.,WALDREN, R. P., TEARE, I. D., 1973: Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39, 205-207.
BEAUCHAMP, C., FRIDOVICH, I. 1971: Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acryl- amide gels. Analytical Biochemistry 44, 276-287.
BRADFORD, M. M., 1976: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248-254.
BROUQUISSE, R., JAMES, F., PRADET, A.,RAYMOND, P., 1992: Asparagine metabolism and nitrogen distribution during protein degradation in sugar-starved maize root tips. Planta 188, 384-395.
BROWN, A. D., 1990: Microbial water stress physiology, principles and perspectives. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
CHAFFEI, C., PAGEAU, K., SUZUKI, A.,GOUIA, H.,GHORBEL, M. H.,MASCLAUX-DAUBRESSE, C., 2004: Cadmium toxicity induced changes in nitrogen management in Lycopersiconesculentum leading to a metabolic safeguard through an amino acid storage strategy. Plant Physiology 45, 1681-1693.
CHANCE, M.,MAEHLY, A. C., 1955: Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods of Enzymology 2, 764-817.
CHAPMAN, H. D., PRATT, P. F., 1982: Methods of plant analysis. I. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. Chapman Publishers, Riverside, CA CHEESEMAN, J.M., 1988:Mechanismof salt tolerance in plants. Plant Physiology 87, 547-550.
COLMER, T. D.,EPSTEIN, E.,DVORAK, J., 1995: Differential solute regulation in leaf blades of various ages in salt sensitive wheat and a salt-tolerant wheat x Lophopyrum elongatum (Host.) A. Love amphiploid. Plant Physiology 108, 1715-1724.
COURCHESNE, W. E., VLASEK, C., KLUKOVICH, R., COFFEE, S., 2011: Ethanol induces calcium influx via the Cch1-Mid1 transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Archives of Microbiology 193, 323-334.
CUSHMAN, J. C.,DEROCHER, E. J.,BOHNERT, H. J., 1990: Gene expression during adaptation to salt stress. In: KATERMAN, F. J., (ed.) Environmental injury to plants. 173-203. Academic press, New York.
DAVIES, K. J. A., 1987: Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals, 1. General aspects. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262, 9895-9901.
DEMIR, Y.,KOCALISKAN, I., 2001: Effects of NaCl and proline on polyphenol oxidase activity in bean seedlings. Biologia Plantarum 44, 607-609.
DIONISIO-SESE, M. L., TOBITA, S., 1998: Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Science 135, 1-9.
FERREIRA, C.,VOORST, F. V.,NEVES, A. M. L.,OLIVEIRA, R.,KIELLAND-BRANDT, M. C.,LUCAS, C., BRANDT, A., 2005. Amember of the sugar transporter family, Stl1p is the glycerol/H+ symporter in Saccharomyses cerevisiae.Molecular Biology of the Cell 16, 2068-2076.
FOUGÈRE, F., LE RUDULIER, D.,STREETER, J.G., 1991: Effects of salt stress on amino acid, organic acid, and carbohydrate composition of roots, bacteroids, and cytosol of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Plant Physiology 96, 1228-1236.
GREENWAY, H.,MUNNS, R., 1980: Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 312, 149-190.
HERRERA-RODRIGUEZ, M. B., PEREZ-VICENTE, R.,MALDONADO, J. M., 2007: Expression of asparagine synthetase genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) under various environmental stresses. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45, 33-38.
JAGER, H. J.,MEYER, H. R., 1977: Effect of water stress on growth and proline metabolism of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Oecologia 30, 83-96.
KRAUS, T. E., AUSTIN-FLETCHER, R. A., 1994: Paclobutrazol protects wheat seedlings from heat and paraquat injury: is detoxification of active oxygen involved? Plant and Cell Physiology 35, 45-52.
LÄUCHLI, A.,GRATTAN, S. R., 2007: Plant growth and development under salinity stress. In: JENKS, M. A.,HASEGAWA, P. M., JAIN, S. M. (eds.), Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops, 1-32. Springer.
LEA, P. J., SODEK, L., PARRY, M. A. J., SHEWRY, P. R.,HALFORD, N. G., 2007: Asparagine in plants. Annual in Applied Biology 150, 1-126.
LIN, C. C., KAO, C. H., 1995: NaCl stress in rice seedlings: effects of L-proline, glycinebetaine, L- and D-asparagine on seedling growth. Biologia Plantarum 37, 305-308.
LIU, D. Z., LIN, Y. S.,HOU, W. C., 2004: Monohydroxamates of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibit antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 2386-2390.
MANSOUR, M. M. F., 2013: Plasma membrane permeability as an indicator of salt tolerance in plants. Biologia Plantarum. In press.
MARTINELLI, T.,ANNE, W.,ADRIANA, B.,CONCETTA, V.,AKIRA, S.,CELINE,M., 2007: Amino acid pattern and glutamate metabolism during dehydration stress in the resurrection’ plant Sporobolus stapfianus: a comparison between desiccation-sensitive and desiccation tolerant leaves. Journal of Experimental Botany 58, 3037-3046.
MAAROUFI-DGUIMI, H.,DEBOUBA, M.,GAUFICHON, L.,CLÉMENT, G.,GOUIA, H.,HAJJAJI, A., SUZUKI, A., 2011: An Arabidopsis mutant disrupted in ASN2 encoding asparagine synthetase 2 exhibits low salt stress tolerance. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 49, 623-628.
RABE, E., 1990: Stress physiology: the functional significance of the accumulation of nitrogen- containing compounds. Journal of Horticultural Science 65, 231-243.
SAIRAM, R. K., RAO K. V., SRIVASTAVA, G. C., 2002: Differential response of wheat genotypes to long-term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science 163, 1037-1046.
SCHEIN, C. H., 1990: Solubility as a function of protein structure and solvent components.
Biotechnology 8, 308-317.
SHEN, B.,HOHMANN, S., JENSEN, J. G., BOHNERT, H. J., 1999: Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast. Plant Physiology 121, 45-52.
SHEVELEVA, E., CHMARA, W., BOHNERT, H. J., JENSEN, R. G., 1997: Increased salt and drought tolerance by D-ononitol production in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. Plant Physiology 115, 1211-1219.
SIECIECHOWICZ, K. A., JOY, K. W., IRELAND, R. J., 1988: The metabolism of asparagine in plants. Phytochemistry 27, 663-671.
SMIRNOFF, N., CUMBES, Q. J., 1989: Hydroxyl radical scavenging of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry 28, 1057-1060.
STEWART, G. R., LARHER, F., 1980: Accumulation of amino acids and related compounds in relation to environmental stress. In: MIFLIN, B. J. (ed.), The biochemistry of plants, 609-635. Academic Press, New York.
STOOP, J. M. H.,WILLIAMSON, J. D., PHARR, D.M., 1996:Mannitol metabolism in plants: A method for coping with stress. Trends in Plant Science 1, 139-144.
STOREY, R.,WYN JONES, R. G., 1977: Quaternary ammonium compounds in plants in relation to salt stress. Phytochemistry 16, 447-453.
STRAIN, H. H.,SVEC,W.A., 1966: Extraction, separation, estimation and isolation of chlorophylls. In: VERNON, L. P., SEELY, S. R. (eds), The chlorophylls, 21-66. Academic Press, New York.
SULIEMAN, S., FISCHINGER, S. A., GRESSHOFF, P. M., 2010: Asparagine as a major factor in the N-feedback regulation of N2 fixation in Medicago truncatula. Physiologia Plantarum 140, 21-31.
THOMAS, J. C., DE ARMOND, R. L.,BOHNERT, H. J., 1992: Influence of NaCl on growth, proline and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase levels in Mesembrythemum crystallinum suspension cultures. Plant Physiology 98, 926-931.
WILLIAMS, D. C.,LIM,M. H.,CHEN, A. O.,PANGBORN, R.M.,WHITAKER, J. R., 1986: Blanching of vegetables for freezing-which indicator enzyme to choose. Food Technology 40, 130-140.
YAMAGUCHI, T., BLUMDWALD, E., 2005: Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: Challenges and opportunities. Trends in Plant Science 12, 615-620.
ZAUBERMAN, Z.,ROREN, R.,AKERMAN, I.,WEKSLER, A., FUCH, Y., 1991: Post harvest retention of the red color of litchi fruit pericarp. Scientia Horticulturae 47, 89-97.