Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series

The Journal of Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun

Open access

ISSN: 1732-4254
e-ISSN: 2083-8298

The topics of papers published in the Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series range from theoretical to empirical investigations into:

  • human geography,
  • demography,
  • settlement geography,
  • processes of urbanization and urban settlement systems
  • urban studies, metropolitan areas
  • integrated urban and regional development
  • landscape and rural settlement
  • spatial organization and territorial planning,
  • regional policy,
  • medical geography,
  • tourism and recreation,
  • economic geography,
  • geography of crime,
  • trade geography,
  • geography of services,
  • political geography,
  • electoral geography,
  • human ecology,
  • sociology,
  • economics,

dealing with issues of diverse spatial scales – local, regional, national, and international.

Similarity Check Plagiarism Screening System

The editorial board is participating in a growing community of Similarity Check System's users in order to ensure that the content published is original and trustworthy. Similarity Check is a medium that allows for comprehensive manuscripts screening, aimed to eliminate plagiarism and provide a high standard and quality peer-review process.

Detailed description of the Similarity Check System can be found at:

Why subscribe and read

  • a wide array of high quality original articles
  • the articles published after double-blind peer review provided by minimum two subject experts (including foreign ones)
  • a full database of up-to-date research results in human geography, economic geography – both theoretical and empirical
  • a platform for exchanging ideas between the scientists from many countries of the World
  • the Advisory Council, distinguished scientists from 31 different countries and from 49 research centres (universities and scientific

Why submit

  • The articles of both domestic and foreign authors are always up-to-date, original, never printed before in other scientific publications, fulfill high scientific standards, and have very good educational value.
  • The articles are published after double-blind peer review provided by minimum two subject experts. The reviews are anonymous, neither author nor reviewer knows the other's identity.
  • The rejection rate of articles amounts to approximately 70%.
  • All articles have language assistance for authors from non-English speaking countries.
  • The editors provide fast route for the publication process and full access to DeGruyter e-technology.
  • Journal is highly evaluated and indexed e.g. on the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education Evaluated Journals List.

Rejection Rate

  • about 70%


Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series is covered by the following services:

  • AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)
  • Arianta
  • Baidu Scholar
  • BazEkon
  • BazHum
  • CABI (over 50 subsections)
  • CEEOL - Central and Eastern European Online Library
  • CEJSH (The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities)
  • Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index
  • Clarivate Analytics - Web of Science
  • CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure)
  • Current Geographical Publications
  • DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)
  • EBSCO (relevant databases)
  • EBSCO Discovery Service
  • EconBiz
  • Elsevier - Engineering Village
  • Elsevier - Reaxys
  • Elsevier - SCOPUS
  • ERIH PLUS (European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences)
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • GeoRef
  • Google Scholar
  • Index Copernicus
  • International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (ProQuest)
  • Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
  • J-Gate
  • JournalGuide
  • JournalTOCs
  • KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders)
  • Microsoft Academic
  • Naviga (Softweco)
  • POL-index
  • Primo Central (ExLibris)
  • ProQuest (relevant databases)
  • Publons
  • ReadCube
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal (VINITI)
  • Research Papers in Economics (RePEc)
  • SCImago (SJR)
  • Sherpa/RoMEO
  • Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)
  • TDNet
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb
  • WanFang Data
  • WorldCat (OCLC)

Editor in Chief
Daniela Szymańska, Department of Urban Studies and Regional Development, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland

Managing Editor
Jadwiga Biegańska, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
György Csomós, University of Debrecen, Hungary
Ben Derudder, Ghent University, Belgium
Mirek Dymitrow, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Christian M. Rogerson, Faculty of Managment, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Subject Editors
Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
Elżbieta Grzelak-Kostulska, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
Krzysztof Rogatka, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
Jayne Rogerson, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Stefania Środa-Murawska, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland

Statistical Editor
Aleksander Zaigrajew, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland

Technical Editor
Aleksandra Lewandowska, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland

Advisory Council / Editorial Board
Hany M. Ayad, Alexandria University, Egypt
Stefan Bouzarovski, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Kuei-Tien Chou, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Manolis Christofakis, Panteion University, Athens, Greece
Ana Maria Daou, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Gerard-Francois Dumont, University of Paris 4 Sorbonne, France
Daniel Felsenstein, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Mirko Grčić, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Alois Hynek, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Peter Jordan, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Sebastian Kinder, University of Tübingen, Germany
Lily Kong, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Irena E. Kotowska, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
Kostis Koutsopoulos, National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Elmar Kulke, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
Sławomir Kurek, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Simon Kušar, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Maria Lewicka, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruñ, Poland
Weidong Liu, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Teemu Makkonen, Tampere University, Finland
Szymon Marcińczak, University of Lodz, Poland
Wiesław Michalak, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada
Ana Monteiro, University of Porto, Portugal
Etienne Nel, University of Otago, New Zealand
Michael A. Niedzielski, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, USA
Martin Ouředniček, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Montserrat Pallares-Barbera, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain
Michael Poulsen, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
Christoph Rupprecht, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan
Sergey Ryashchenko, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
Sevil Sargin, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
Daniel Seidenglanz, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Sergei Shubin, University of Swansea, United Kingdom
Viacheslav A. Shuper, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Ram Babu Singh, University of Delhi, India
Nicolai Sluka, Moscow State University, Russia
Eduardas Spiriajevas, Klaipeda University, Lithuania
Marie Stenseke, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Tadeusz Stryjakiewicz, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
Michael John Sutton, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan
Frank Swiaczny, Federal Institute for Population Research, Wiesbaden, Germany
Sasha Tsenkova, University of Calgary, Canada
Christian Vandermotten, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Nigel Walford, Kingston University, United Kingdom
Grzegorz Węcławowicz, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Kristopher White, KIMEP University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Jean-Marc Zaninetti, University of Orléans, France
Li Zhang, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
Simon X.B. Zhao, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Committee for Language Consultation/Language Editors
Hazel Pearson, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
Katarzyna Więckowska, Nicolaus Copernicus University Toruń, Poland
Mikołaj Sobociński, American College of the Middle-East, Kuwait, Kuwait
Tomasz Fojt, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
Richard Bolt, Toruń, Poland

Editorial Office:
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Lwowska 1
87-100 Toruń

fax +48 56 611 2638
e-mail: BGSS@umk.pl


All Rights Reserved.

No part of this periodical may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as described below, without permission in writing from the Publisher.

Printed in Poland

© Copyright Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
© Cover design: Daniela Szymańska

Title, logo and layout of journal Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series are reserved trademarks of Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series.

ISSN 1732-4254

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
Yu. Gagarina 5,
87-100 Toruń,

e-mail: wydawnictwo@umk.pl

Editorial Office:
tel.+48 56 611 4295, fax +48 56 611 4705

Distribution Office:
tel./fax .+48 56 611 4238; e-mail: books@umk.pl

Promotion Office:
tel.+48 56 611 4809

Bogumiła Zuga 32A Str.
01-811 Warsaw, Poland
T: +48 22 701 50 15

In order to facilitate publication, the authors are kindly requested to submit texts written according to the rules presented below.
The articles are published after positive double-blind peer review provided by minimum two subject experts, therefore you are asked to submit the article as a file delivered in an electronic way to: BGSS@umk.pl or via electronic platform.

The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

The title page

The title page should only contain the title without the author's name, and then the text should be formatted according to the rules.
A separate sheet of paper should include a) the author’s name and surname, b) the full name and address of the institution, c) the telephone, fax, and e-mail addresses, d) the annotation that the article has not been published before and is in accordance with our anti-ghostwriting policy (with signature), e) information about financial support for the preparation of the article (grants or other sponsorships). If there are several authors you are asked to indicate the main author responsible for correspondence. If the main author has not been indicated the first listed will play that role.

The main text

The manuscript should be typed in a word processor (doc and rtf files accepted), in A4 format with standard margins and spacing for Times New Roman size 12 font. The article must be divided into the following sections: introduction (background), material and research methods, results, conclusions, references. The entire article (with abstract, the table of contents, main text, references, computer-generated figures and tables) should not exceed 40,000 characters with spaces if the article consists of the text only. Include all illustrations in separate tif or cdr files.
The article should be preceded by an abstract of 100-150 words and a maximum of five keywords, for instance: migration, urbanisation, industrialisation, etc. Tables and figures should be placed in the manuscript.
Do not use footnotes. If necessary number them in the text (1), (2), and insert the Notes section on the last page just before the References. You may include Acknowledgements below Notes.
Each author's contribution to the article should be noted: C - research concept, D - data collection and statistical analysis, F - figures and tables creation, P - photography, M - manuscript preparation, R - references selection.
The articles are accepted in good English only. General rules for text writing and editing of the Modern Language Association apply, MLA Style. Prior to publication all accepted articles must be approved by the Committee for Language Consultation (including native speakers) and if need be corrected texts should be submitted to the editors again. The spelling should follow the Oxford English Dictionary or PWN-Oxford English-Polish Dictionary

Tables, figures, illustrations, and photographs

The tables should be numbered using Arabic numbers, and the title must be placed above the table. If footnotes are needed, the authors should mark them with letters a, b, c, etc., and place them below the tables. Footnotes, symbols, sources, etc. should all be written under the tables in Times New Roman font, size 8 and in italics.
The figures should be marked as 'Fig.', and such an expression must be used in the text. They should be numbered using Arabic numbers. The illustrations should be of such quality that the editor would not have to correct them (computer generated - CorelDRAW or equivalent): 300 dpi and above 300 resolution. Uncompressed images, e.g. tif or cdr format, are preferred. Should you e-mail the article, make sure you provide all illustrations in separate files.
Authors should place the title of the illustration below the illustration with the symbols and the source, etc., all written in size 8 font, in italics.


The text should quote the authors, the year of publication and the page (if it is a citation), e.g. (Jerczyński, 1977: 35), and the full credits should be included in the References at the end of the main text. Should the same author and year re-occur, the letters a, b, c, etc., must be added.

An example:
Chodkowska-Miszczuk, J. and Szymańska. D., 2011: Update of the review: Cultivation of energy crops in Poland against socio-demographic factors. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 15, Issue 9, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 4242-4247. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.126

Dziewoński, K. and Korcelli, P., 1981: Migracje w Polsce: przemiany i polityka (Migration in Poland: transformations and politics - in Polish). In: Dziewoński, K. and Korcelli, P. editors, Studia nad migracjami i przemianami systemu osadniczego w Polsce, Prace Geograficzne, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, No. 140, Wrocław: Ossolineum, pp. 11-51.

Jerczyński, M. and Gawryszewski, A., 1984: Problemy demograficzne a rozwój miejskiego systemu osadniczego Polski (Demographic problems and development of urban settlement system of Poland - in Polish). In: Kukliński, A. editor, Gospodarka przestrzenna Polski. Diagnoza i rekonstrukcja, Wrocław: Ossolineum, pp. 155-211.

Szymańska, D. and Biegańska, J., 2012: Infrastructure's and housing's development in the rural areas in Poland - some problems. In: Journal of Infrastructure Development, Vol. 4, No. 1, Copyright SAGE publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi, pp. 1-17. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0974930612449533

Szymańska, D. and Chodkowska-Miszczuk, J., 2011: Endogenous resources utilization of rural areas in shaping sustainable development in Poland. In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 15, Issue 3, Elsevier Ltd, pp. 1497-1501. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.019

Szymańska, D. and Matczak, A., 2002: Urbanization in Poland: tendencies and transformation. In: European Urban and Regional Studies, 9 (1), Copyright SAGE publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi, pp. 39-46. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096977640200900104

Internet database and digital sources must also be precisely identified and a Date of Access (DoA) together with a domain must be provided. If the article/book has DOI number, the author should include it in the references. Accuracy and completeness of references are the responsibilities of the author.
The properly prepared, complete and correct references allow automatic creation of active links by the PubFactory technology that is used for making the electronic version of our journal. Active reference linking is regarded as the greatest benefit of electronic publishing and it adds a great deal of value to your publication.


voivodship - administrative region of the 1st order
poviat - administrative region of the 2nd order
gmina - administrative region of the 3rd order

General remarks

Articles are accepted for consideration on the understanding that they are not being submitted elsewhere and are in accordance with our anti-ghostwriting policy.
In order to expedite the editing and publishing process and enable to disseminate your contribution to the fullest extent, we need to have this Licence Contract.

Anti-ghostwriting policy

To provide the highest quality scientific publication and meet the Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series standards of quality the Editorial Board has introduced an anti-ghostwriting policy. Since the 'ghostwriting' and 'guest authorship' are an indication of scientific dishonesty they will not be accepted and any cases will be exposed.
For details, see: http://publicationethics.org

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.94

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.461
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.922

Most Popular