Heritage proximity, attitudes to tourism impacts and residents’ support for heritage tourism in Kaole Site, Tanzania

Open access


This study examines determinants of residents’ support for tourism by testing a model based on the social exchange and material culture theories. The model proposes that perceptual heritage proximity influences residents’ attitudes to positive and negative impacts of tourism, which in turn influence residents’ support for tourism. The model was tested using data gathered from a sample of 256 local residents in Kaole Village, Tanzania. Results from structural equation modelling indicate that heritage proximity has an influence on attitudes to the impacts of tourism, which in turn influence support. The findings imply that heritage proximity serves as a point of reference for residents’ evaluation of tourism, which is critical in fostering support. Findings confirm the relevance of the heritage proximity concept in explaining support for tourism. The study provides recommendations to better engage the residents in tourism development. Suggestions for future research are provided.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Andereck K.L. Valentine K.M. Knopf R.C. and Vogt C.A. 2005: Residents’ Perceptions of Community Tourism Impacts. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 32 No. 4 pp. 1056-1076.

  • Andereck K.L. and Nyaupane G.P. 2011: Exploring the Nature of Tourism and Quality of Life Perceptions Among Residents. In: Journal of Travel Research Vol. 50 pp. 248-260.

  • Andriotis K.L. 2005: Community Groups’ Perceptions of and Preferences for Tourism Development: Evidence from Crete. In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research Vol. 29 pp. 67-90.

  • Ap J. 1992: Residents’ Perceptions on Tourism Impacts. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 19 No. 4 pp. 665-690.

  • Appadurai A. 1996: Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value. In: Appadurai A. editor The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp. 3-63.

  • Belsil F.J. and Hoy D.R. 1980: The Perceived Impact of Tourism by Residents: A Case Study in Santa Maria Colombia. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 7 No. 1 pp. 83-101.

  • Besculides A. Lee M.E. and McCormick P.J. 2002: Residents’ Perception of the Cultural Benefits of Tourism. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 29 No. 2 pp. 303-319.

  • Buckland M. 2013: Cultural Heritage (Patrimony): An Introduction. In: Willer M. and Gilliland A.J. editors Records Archives and Memory Zadar: University of Zadar pp. 11-25.

  • Butler R.W. 1980: The Concept of a Tourist-area Cycle of Evolution and Implications for Management. In: The Canadian Geographer Vol. 24 pp. 5-12.

  • Chami F. A. 2002: Kaole and the Swahili World. In: Studies in the African Past: The Journal of African Archaeology Network Vol. 2 pp. 1-14.

  • Chen S. Wang S. and Xu H. 2016: Influence of Place Identity on Residents’ Attitudes to Dark Tourism. In: Journal of China Tourism Research Vol. 13 No. 4 pp. 228-256.

  • Chirikure S. Manyanga M. Ndoro W. and Pwiti G. 2010: Unfulfilled Promises? Heritage Management and Community Participation at Some Africa’s Cultural Heritage Sites. In: International Journal of Heritage Studies. Vol. 16 No. 1-2 pp. 30-44.

  • Cinoglu H. and Arikan Y. 2012: Self Identity and Identity Formation: From the Perspectives of Three Major Theories. In: International Journal of Human Sciences Vol. 9 No. 2 pp. 1114-1161.

  • Doxey G.V. 1975: A Causation Theory of Visitor-resident Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences. Travel and Tourism Research Association 6th Annual Conference Proceedings. San Diego CA pp. 195-198.

  • Dragouni M. 2017: Sustainable Heritage Tourism: Towards a Community-led Approach Unpublished PhD Thesis London: University College of London.

  • Dyer P. Gursoy D. Sharma B. and Carter J. 2007: Structural Modeling of Resident Perceptions of Tourism and Associated Development on the Sunshine Coast Australia. In: Tourism Management Vol. 28 pp. 409-422.

  • Eagly A.H. & Chaiken S. 1993: The Psychology of Attitudes. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

  • Edgell D.L. 2006: Managing Sustainable Tourism: A Legacy for the Future. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press.

  • Gautum A. 2009: Profile of Current Coastal Tourism in Bagamoyo District Tanzania and Opportunities for Development of Ecotourism Dar es Salaam: TCMP USAID

  • Goeldner C.R. and Ritchie J.R.B. 2009: Tourism: Principles Practices and Philosophies. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  • Gu H. and Ryan C. 2008: Place Attachment Identity and Community Impacts of Tourism – The Case of a Beijing Hutong. In: Tourism Management Vol. 29 pp. 637-647.

  • Gursoy D. Jurowski C. and Uysal M. 2002: Resident Attitudes: A Structural Modeling Approach. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 29 No. 1 pp. 79-105.

  • Gursoy D. and Rutherford D. 2004: Host Attitudes Toward Tourism: An Improved Structural Modelling Approach. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 31 No. 3 pp. 495-516.

  • Hagger M.S. Anderson M. Kyriakaki M. and Darkings S. 2007: Aspects of Identity and Their Influence of Intentional Behaviour: Comparing Effects for Three Health Behaviours. In: Personality and Individual Differences Vol. 42 pp. 355-367.

  • Hair J.F. Black W.C. Babin B.J. and Anderson R.E. 2014: Multivariate Data Analysis. London: Pearson.

  • Hubbard P. 1993: The Value of Conservation. In: Town Planning Review Vol. 64 No. 4 pp. 359-373.

  • Jackson M.S. and Inbarakan R.J. 2006: Evaluating Residents’ Attitudes and Intentions to Act Toward Tourism Development in Regional Victoria Australia. In: International Journal of Tourism Research Vol. 8 pp. 355-366.

  • Jacobs K. and Malpas J. 2013: Material Objects Identity and the Homo: Towards a Relational Housing Research Agenda. In: Housing Theory and Society Vol. 30 No. 3 pp. 281-292.

  • Johansson M. and Henningsson M. 2011: Socio-psychological Factors in Public Support for Local Biodiversity Conservation. In: Society and Natural Resources Vol. 24 No. 7 pp. 717-733.

  • Jurowski C. Uysal M. and Williams R. 1997: A Theoretical Analysis of Host Community Resident Reactions to Tourism. In: Journal of Travel Research Vol. 36 No. 2 pp. 3-11.

  • Krejcie R.V. and Morgan D.W. 1970: Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. In: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol. 30 pp. 607-610.

  • Larkham P.J. 2000: Residents’ Attitudes to Conservation. In: Journal of Architectural Conservation Vol. 6 No. 1 pp. 73-89.

  • Lee C. Kang S.K. Long P. and Reisinger Y. 2010: Residents’ Perceptions of Casino Impacts: A Comparative Study. In: Tourism Management Vol. 31 pp. 189-201.

  • Liu J. Sheldon P.J. and Var T. 1987: Residents Perceptions of the Environmental Impact of Tourism. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 14 No. 1 pp. 17-37.

  • Lowenthal D. 1985: The Past is a Foreign Country Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Lozano E. 1974: Visual Needs in the Built Environment. In: Town Planning Review Vol. 45 pp. 351-374.

  • Lwoga N.B. 2017: Factors Influencing Local Residents’ Intention to Conserve the Built Heritage in Tanzania. In: Journal of Heritage Tourism Vol. 12 No. 4 pp. 394-409.

  • Mapunda B.B.B. 2005: Contribution of Cultural Heritage to Development in Tanzania. In: B.B.B. Mapunda and P. Msemwa editors Salvaging Tanzania’s Cultural Heritage. Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press pp. 243 – 260.

  • Masele F. 2012: Private Business Investments in Heritage Sites in Tanzania: Recent Developments and Challenges for Heritage Management. In: African Archaeological Review Vol. 29 pp. 51-65.

  • McKercher B. and du Cros H. 2002: Cultural Tourism: The Partnership between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management New York: The Haworth Press Inc.

  • Milman A. and Pizam A. 1988: Social Impact of Tourism on Central Florida. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 15 No. 2 pp. 208-220.

  • Muceniece L. 2015: Historic Ruins – An Important Landscape Element. In: Landscape Architecture and Art Vol. 6 No. 6 pp. 5-11.

  • Muresan I.C. Oroian C.E. Harun R. Arion F. Porutiu A. Chiciudean G. Todea A. and Lile R. 2016: Local Residents’ Attitude Toward Sustainable Rural Tourism development. In: Sustainability Vol. 8 pp. 2-14.

  • Ndoro W. 2001: Your Monument Our Shrine: The Preservation of Great Zimbabwe. In: Studies in African Archaeology Vol. 19.

  • Ndoro W. 2005: Your Monument Our Shrine: The Preservation of Great Zimbabwe. Rome: ICCROM Conservation Studies.

  • Nyaupane G.P. 2009: Heritage Complexity and Tourism: The Case of Lumbini Nepal. In: Journal of Heritage Tourism Vol. 4 No. 2 pp. 157-172.

  • Nunkoo R. and Gursoy D. 2012: Residents’ Support for Tourism: An Identity Perspective. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 39 No. 1 pp. 243-268.

  • Nunkoo R. and Ramkissoon H. 2010: Modeling Community Support for a Proposed Integrated Resort Project. In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 18 pp. 257-277.

  • Pendlebury J. and Townshend T. 1999: The Conservation of Historic Areas and Public Participation. In: Journal of Architectural Conservation Vol. 5 No. 2 pp. 72-87.

  • Pollard E. J. B. 2008: The Archaeology of Tanzanian Coastal Landscapes in the 6th to 15th Centuries AD (The Middle Iron Age of the Region). Cambridge Monographs in Archaeology 76. Cambridge: Bar International Series 1873.

  • Rasoolimanesh S.M. and Jaafar M. 2016: Community Participation Toward Tourism Development and Conservation Program in Rural World Heritage Sites. In: Butowski L. editor Tourism – from empirical research towards practical application InTechOpen pp. 1-14.

  • Richards G. 2002: Satisfying the Cultural Tourist: Challenges for the New Millennium. In: Akama J. and Sterry P. editors Cultural Tourism in Africa: Strategies for the New Millennium. Proceedings of the ATLAS Africa International Conference in Mombasa Retrieved from http://www.atlas-euro.org/pages/pdf/Cultural%20tourism%20in%20Africa%20Deel%201.pdf

  • Sing’ambi E. 2017: Heritage Attachment and Domestic Tourist Visits to Historic Sites in Tanzania Unpublished MA Dissertation Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam.

  • Stets J.E. and Biga C.F. 2003: Bringing Identity Theory into Environmental Sociology. In: Sociological Theory Vol. 21 pp. 398-423.

  • Stronza A. and Gordillo J. 2008: Community Views of Ecotourism. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 35 No. 2 pp. 448-468.

  • Timothy D.J. and Nyaupane G.P. 2009: Cultural Heritage and Tourism in the Developing World: A Regional Perspective. London: Routledge.

  • Torre A. and Rallet A. 2005: Proximity and Localization. In: Regional Studies Vol. 39 No. 1 pp. 47-59.

  • Twining-Ward L. and Butler R. 2002: Implementing STD on a Small Island: Development and Use of Sustainable Tourism Development Indicators in Samoa. In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol. 10 pp. 363-387.

  • Uriely N. Israeli A. and Reichel A. 2002: Heritage Proximity and Resident Attitudes Toward Tourism Development. In: Annals of Tourism Research Vol. 29 pp. 859-861.

  • URT [United Republic of Tanzania] 2017: Tourism Statistical Bulletin for 2016. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Dar es Salaam: Tourism Division.

  • Vargas-Sánchez A. Plaza-Mejia M. and Porras-Bueno N. 2009: Understanding Residents’ Attitudes Toward the Development of Industrial Tourism in a Former Mining Community. In: Journal of Travel Research Vol. 47 pp. 373-387.

  • Xu J. 2007: Community Participation in Ethnic Minority Cultural Heritage Management in China: A Case Study of Xianrendong Ethnic Cultural and Ecological Village. In: Papers from the Institute of Archaeology (PIA) Vol. 18.

  • Yoon Y. Gursoy D. and Chen J.S. 2001: Validating a Tourism Development Theory with Structural Equation Modelling. In: Tourism Management Vol. 22 pp. 363-372.

  • Yu C. Huang Y. Yeh P. and Chao P. 2017: Residents’ Attitudes Toward Island Tourism Development in Taiwan. In: Island Studies Journal Vol. 12 No. 20 pp. 159-176.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 1.11

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.218
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.591

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 367 224 22
PDF Downloads 346 210 22