Food and non-food retail change in a post-communist country:A case study of the Gemer region in Slovakia

Open access

Abstract

The retailing sector seems to be rather sensitive to social and economic developments in a society. In contrast to global retail network trends, specific processes may be observed in some lagging regions in post-communist countries. In the article attention is paid to spatial changes in food and non-food retailing locations in the region of Gemer, one of the least developed regions of post-communist Slovakia. The retailing network transformation between 1996 and 2012 was measured by applying retail capacity calculations for surplus or deficit, related to the population size of municipalities within the region. In the article, we examine food and non-food retail locations in the Gemer region with a special focus on spatial changes (urban vs rural) as well as temporal and trends based on retail capacity growth indices. In conclusion, the findings suggest that rural food and non-food retailing businesses have gone through considerable change and that it is not in harmony with the globalisation processes visible in the urban environment. Specifically, retail capacities (both food and nonfood) in the Gemer region are witnessing a period of growth.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Alexander N. and Myers H. (2000). The retail internationalisation process. International marketing review 17 334–353. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330010339888.

  • Banerjee B. and Jarmuzek M. (2010). Economic growth and regional disparities in the Slovak republic. Comparative Economic Studies 52(3) 379–403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/ces.2010.13.

  • Bašovský O. (1987). Regionálna štruktúra juhoslovenských okresov vo vzťahu k regionálnej štruktúre SSR a Projektu urbanizácie SSR (Regional structure of South-Slovakian regions related to regional structure of the Slovak Socialist Republic and Urbanisation Project – in Slovak). Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universistatis Comenianae – Geographica 27 113–120.

  • Benáček V. (2006). The Rise of the ‘Grand Entrepreneurs’ in the Czech Republic and Their Contest for Capitalism. Czech Sociological Review 42(6) 1151–1170.

  • Bilková K. and Križan F. (2013). Koncentrácia podnikateľských subjektov v maloobchode v slovenských mestách (The Concentration of Businesses Entities in the Retail Sector in the Slovak Towns – in Slovak). Geographia Cassoviensis 7(1) 31–44.

  • Bilková K. and Križan F. (2015). Mapping of Grocery Stores in Slovak Countryside in Context of Food Deserts. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 63(5) 1633–1638. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201563051633.

  • Bilková K. Križan F. Barlík P. Horňák M. Zeman M. and Zubriczký G. (2010). Za nákupom ďaleko: rurálne potravinové púšte na Gemeri. (A Long Way To the Shop: Rural Food Deserts in the Gemer Region – in Slovak). Geografický časopis 69(1) 3-20.

  • Birkin M. Clarke G.P. and Clarke M.P. (2002). Retail geography and intelligent network planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Birkin M. Clarke G.P. Clarke M.P. and Wilson A.G. (1996). Intelligent GIS: Location decisions and strategic planning. Cambridge: Geoinformation International.

  • Bleha B. Jurčová D. Meszáros J. Pilinská V. Šprocha B. Vaňo B. Bačík V. Ďurček P. and Kusendová D. (2014). Demografický atlas Slovenskej republiky (Demographic Atlas of the Slovak Republic – in Slovak). Bratislava: Geo-Grafika.

  • Boruta T. and Ivan I. (2010). Public Transport in Rural Areas of the Czech Republic – Case Study of the Jeseník Region. Moravian Geographical Reports 18(2) 9–22.

  • Broadbridge A. and Calderwood E. (2002). Rural grocery shoppers: do their attitudes reflect their actions? International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 30(8) 394–406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550210435282.

  • Buček M. (1999). Regional Disparities in the Slovak Republic. European Urban and Regional Studies 6(4) 360–364. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/096977649900600411.

  • Clapson M. (2003). Suburban Century. Social Change and Urban Growth in England and the United States. New York: Berg.

  • Clarke I. and Banga S. (2010). The economic and social role of small stores: a review of UK evidence. The International Review of Retail Distribution and Consumer Research 20 187–215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09593961003701783.

  • Dries L. Reardon T. and Swinnen J.F. (2004). The rapid rise of supermarkets in Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for the agrifood sector and rural development. Development policy review 22(5)525–556. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7679.2004.00264.x.

  • Drtina T. (1995). The Internationalisation of Retailing in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Service Industries Journal 15(4) 191–203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069500000057.

  • Engler-Stringer R. Muhajarine N. Le H. del Canto S. and Ridalls T. (2014). Characterizing the Food Environment in Saskatoon for Families with Children: Research Methods and Descriptive Results. Saskatoon: Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit.

  • Finka M. Janaček R. and Petríková D. (2005). Slovakia: Transforming Industrial Regions and Preparing for EU Regional Policy. Müller B. Finka M. Lintz G.. editors. Rise and Decline of Industry in Central and Eastern Europe. Berlin: Springer 195–212.

  • Glanz K. Sallis J.F. Saelens B.E. and Frank L.D. (2005). Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. American Journal of Health Promotion 19(5)330–333. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-19.5.330.

  • Goodchild M. Haining R. and Wise S. (1992). Integrating GIS and spatial data analysis: problems and possibilities. International journal of geographical information systems 6(5) 407–423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02693799208901923.

  • Guy C. (2006). Planning for retail development: A critical view of the British experience. London: Routledge.

  • Guy C. and David G. (2004). Measuring physical access to “healthy foods” in areas of social deprivation: a case study in Cardiff. International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(3) 222–234. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2003.00340.x.

  • Halás M. and Zuskáčová V. (2013). Travelling to services in the daily urban system of Olomouc. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 20(20) 23–41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/bog-2013-0009.

  • Heffner K. and Twardzik M. (2015). The Impact Of Shopping Centers In Rural Areas And Small Towns In The Outer Metropolitan Zone (The Example Of The Silesian Voivodeship). European Countryside 7 (2) 87–100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/euco-2015-0006.

  • Horňák M. and Rochovská A. (2014). Do mesta čoraz ďalej – dopravné vylúčenie obyvateľov vidieckych obcí Gemera (Further into the town – transport exclusion of rural settlements residents in Gemer region – in Slovak). Geographia Cassoviensisl 8(2) 141–149.

  • Horňák M. and Tóth V. (2013). Aktuálne problémy verejnej dopravy v regióne Gemer (Topical Problems of Public Transport in the Region of Gemer – in Slovak). Kvizda M. and Tomeš Z. editors. Regulovaná a neregulovaná konkurence na kolejích 49–61.

  • Jiao J. Moudon A.V. Ulmer J. Hurvitz P.M. and Drewnowski A. (2012). How to identify food deserts: measuring physical and economic Access to supermarkets in King County Washington. American Journal of Public Health 10(10) 32–39. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2105%2FAJPH.2012.300675.

  • Jones K.G. and Simmons J.W.(1990). The retail environment. London: Routledge.

  • Jussila H. Lotvonen E. and Tykkyläinen M. (1992).Business strategies of rural shops in a peripheral region. Journal of Rural Studies 8(2) 185-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-0167(92)90076-I.

  • Jürgens U. (2014). German grocery discounters: dynamics and regional impact. The case of schleswig-holstein (Germany). Quaestiones Geographicae 33(4) 17-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/quageo-2014-0046.

  • Khare A. Pandey S.K. and Bhardwaj P. (2014). Impact of Culture Cosmopolitanism and Price on Local Store Loyalty: An Empirical Study from India. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 26(3) 185–200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2014.889588.

  • Kirk S.F. Penney T.L. and McHugh T.L. (2010). Characterizing the obesogenic environment: the state of the evidence with directions for future research. Obesity Reviews (11)2 109–117. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00611.x.

  • Kluvánková-Oravská T. (2004). Structural funds the challenge for sustainable development and regional disparity in the Slovak Republic. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 17(1) 61–73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1351161042000190745.

  • Kolodko G.W. (2000). Transition to a market and entrepreneurship: the systemic factors and policy options. Communist and Post-Communist Studies 33(2) 271–293. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X(00)00007-6.

  • Kornai J. (2006). The great transformation of central eastern Europe. Economics of transition 14(2) 207–244. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0351.2006.00252.x.

  • Krásný T. (1992). Retailing in Czechoslovakia. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 20(6) 30–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000002966.

  • Križan F. and Bilková K. (2014). Transformácia maloobchodu na území Slovenska (Retailing Transformation in the Territory of Slovakia – in Slovak). Lauko V. editor Regionálne dimenzie Slovenska 449–478.

  • Križan F. Bilková K. Kita P. and Siveček T. (2016).Transformation of Retailing in Post-Communist Slovakia in the Context of Globalization. E+M Economy & Management 19(1) 148-164. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15240/tul/001/2016-1-011.

  • Križan F. Tolmáči L. and Lauko V. (2009). Potravinársky maloobchod v rurálnom prostredí: kvalita nakupovania (Food retail in rural region: quality of shopping - in Slovak). Acta geographica Universitatis Comenianae 53 35–45.

  • Kulke E. (1997). Effects of the economic transformation process on the structure and locations of retailing in East Germany. Journal of retailing and consumer services 491) 49-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0969-6989(95)00084-4.

  • Kumar Velayudhan S. (2014). Outshopping in rural periodic markets: a retailing opportunity. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 42(2) 151–167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-07-2013-0136.

  • Kunc J. Maryáš J. Tonev P. Frantál B. Siwek T. Halás M. Klapka P. Szczyrba Z. and Zuskáčová V. (2013). Časoprostorové modely nákupního chování české populace (Spatio-Temporal Models of Czech Population’s Shopping Behaviour – in Czech).

  • Kunc J. Tonev P. Szczyrba Z. and Frantál B. (2012).Commuting for Retail Shopping as a Part of the Daily Urban System (Brno the Czech Republic). Geographia Technica 7(1) 36–45.

  • MacDonald D. Crabtree J.R. Wiesinger G. Dax T. Stamou N. Fleury P. Gutierrez Lazpita J. and Gibon A. (2000). Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: environmental consequences and policy response. Journal of Environmental Management 59(1) 47-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.1999.0335.

  • Máliková L. and Klobučník M. (2017). Differences in the rural structure of Slovakia in the context of socio-spatial polarisation. Quaestiones Geographicae 36(2) 125-140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/quageo-2017-0020.

  • Marada M. Květoň V. and Vondráčková P. (2010).Doprava a geografická organizace společnosti v Česku (Transport and Geographical Organisation of Society in Czechia – in Czech).

  • Maryáš J. Kunc J. Tonev P. and Szczyrba Z. (2014).Shopping and Services Related Travel in the Hinterland of Brno: Changes From the Socialist Period to the Present. Moravian Geographical Reports 22(3) 18–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/mgr-2014-0015.

  • Michalak W. (2001). Retail in Poland: An assessment of changing market and foreign investment conditions. Canadian Journal of Regional Science 24(3) 485–504.

  • Mitríková J. (2008). Geografické aspekty transformácie maloobchodu a nákupného správania sa na Slovensku (prípadové štúdie z miest Prešov a Košice) (Geographical Aspects of Retailing and Shopping Behaviour Transformation in Slovakia (Case Studies of Prešov and Košice Cities) – in Slovak). Prešov: Prešovska univerzita v Prešove.

  • Mullis K. and Kim M. (2011). Factors determining inshopping in rural US communities: Consumers‘ and retailers‘ perceptions. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 39(50 326–345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09590551111130757.

  • Murad A. (2014). Creating GIS-based spatial interaction models for retail centres in Jeddah City. International Journal of Business Information Systems 15(3) 358–372. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBIS.2014.059755.

  • Myers H. and Alexander N. (1996). European food retailers‘ evaluation of global markets. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 24(6) 34–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09590559610127038.

  • Nagy E. (2001). Winners and losers in the transformation of city centre retailing in East Central Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies 8(4) 340–348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/096977640100800406.

  • Némethová J. and Civáň M. (2017). Regional differences in agriculture in Slovakia after its accession to the European Union. Quaestiones Geographicae 36(2) 9-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/quageo-2017-0011.

  • Némethová J. Dubcová A. and Kramáreková H. (2014). The Impacts of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy on Agriculture in Slovakia. Moravian geographical reports 22(4) 51-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/mgr-2014-0023.

  • Nutley S. (1998). Rural areas: the accessiblity problem. Hoyle B. and Knowles R. editors. Modern Transport Geography. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons 185–215.

  • Očovský Š. (1974). Priestorové črty tovarovej výmeny (Territorial Features of Goods Interchange – in Slovak).Lukniš M. and Princ J. editors. Slovensko – Ľud Bratislava: Obzor 211–242.

  • Očovský Š. (1976). Vybrané problémy štúdia nákupných miest (Selected problems of research on shopping points – in Slovak). Geografický časopis 28(1) 23–36.

  • Paddison A. and Calderwood E. (2007). Rural retailing: a sector in decline? International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 35(2) 136–155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550710728093.

  • Patel J.D. Bhatt N. Shukla Y. and Gadhavi D. (2015). Antecedents of rural and urban consumers‘ propensity to outshop and product specific outshopping behaviour. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 26 97–103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.05.011.

  • Penz H. (2011). Die Entwicklung der Landwirtschaft im österreichischen Alpenraum nach dem Grad der Betriebserschwernisse. Differenzierungsprozesse am Beispiel der bäuerlichen Bevölkerung der land-und forstwirtschaftlichen Betriebe und der Rinderhaltung (The development of agriculture in the Austrian Alpine region since World War II by the extent of farming difficulties. The process of differentiation by the example of rural population agricultural and forestry businesses and cattle farming – in German). Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft 153 7-30. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1553/moegg153s7.

  • Ptáček P. and Szczyrba Z. (2007). Current suburbanisation trends in the Czech Republic and spatial transformation of retail. Revija za geografijo 1-2 55–65.

  • Raja S. Ma C. and Yadav P. (2008). Beyond food deserts: measuring and mapping racial disparities in neighborhood food environments. Journal of Planning Education and Research 27(4) 469–482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X08317461.

  • Rochovská A. Majo J. and Antoš J. (2015). Dve rozdielne skúsenosti spolužitia a formovania sociálnych sietí Rómov a Nerómov (...a jeden od druhého sa učíme alebo oni sa učia od nás...) (Two different experiences with cohabitation and social network creation of Roma and Non-Roma (… and we learn from one another or they learn from us…) - in Slovak). Rusnáková J. Šramková M. Čerešníková M. Rochovská A. Antoš J. and Majo J. editors. Sociálna opora a sociálne siete marginalizovaných Rómov.Nitra: Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa 118–151.

  • Roig-Tierno N. Baviera-Puig A. and Buitrago-Vera J. (2013). Business opportunities analysis using GIS: the retail distribution sector. Global Business Perspectives 1(3) 226–238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40196-013-0015-6.

  • Rusnáková J. and Rochovská A. (2014). Segregácia marginalizovaných rómskych komunít chudoba a znevýhodnenia súvisiace s priestorovým vylúčením (Segregation of the Marginalized Roma Communities Population Poverty and Disadvantage Related to Spatial Exclusion – in Slovak). Geographia Cassoviensis 8(20 162–172.

  • Sangiorgi D. (2011). Transformative services and transformation design. International Journal of Design (5)2 29–40.

  • Seidenglanz D. (2007). Doprava ve venkovském prostoru (Transport in rural environment – in Czech). Kraft S. Mičková K. Rypl J. Švec P. and Vančura M. editors. Česká geografie v evropském prostoru České Budějovice: Jihočeská univerzita 227–234.

  • Shaw H. (2006). Food Deserts: Towards the Development of a Classification. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography 88(2) 231-247. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0435-3684.2006.00217.x.

  • Smith A. (1996). From convergence to fragmentation: uneven regional development industrial restructuring and the ‚transition to capitalism‘ in Slovakia. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 28)(1) 135–156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1068/a280135.

  • Smith A. (1998). Reconstructing the regional economy: Industrial transformation and regional development in Slovakia. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  • Smith C. and Morton L.W. (2009). Rural food deserts: low-income perspectives on food access in Minnesota and Iowa. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 41(3) 176–187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2008.06.008.

  • Spilková J. (2008). Changing face of the Czech retailing in post-communist transformation: Risks of extreme polarisation under globalisation pressures. Dostál P. editor. Evolution of geographical systems and risk processes in the global context. Prague: P3K 157–171.

  • Spilková J. (2012). The birth of the Czech mall enthusiast: the transition of shopping habits from utilitarian to leisure shopping. Geografie 117(1) 21–32.

  • Spilková J. and Perlín R. (2013). Farmers‘ markets in Czechia: Risks and possibilities. Journal of Rural Studies 32 220–229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2013.07.001.

  • Szczyrba Z. (2000). Venkovský obchod v ČR v podmínkách ekonomické transformace (Rural retailing in Czechia under economic transformation conditions – in Czech). Urbanizmus a územní rozvoj 3(6) 15–19.

  • Szczyrba Z. Fiedor D. and Kunc J. (2013). Služby ve venkovských regionech Česka – kvantitatívní hodnocení změn v uplynulém transformačným období (příspěvek ke studiu venkova) (Services in the rural regions of Czechia – quantitative assessment of changes in the elapsed transformation period (contribution to the study of rural space) – in Czech). Klimová V. editor. XVI. Mezinárodní kolokvium o regionálních vědách. Brno: Masarykova Univerzita 212–222.

  • Švecová A. and Rajčáková E. (2013). Vývoj nezamestnanosti na Slovensku v kontexte regionálnych disparít v rokoch 2001-2011 (Unemployment in Slovak Republic at the Context of Regional Disparities in 2001-2011 – in Slovak). Geographia Cassoviensis 7(1) 147–156.

  • Šveda M. and Križan F. (2012). Prejavy komerčnej suburbanizácie vo vybraných odvetviach hospodárstva v zázemí Bratislavy (The Manifestation of Commercial Suburbanization in the Selected Sectors of Economy in the Hinterland of Bratislava – in Slovak). Ekonomický časopis 60(5) 460–481.

  • Švejnar J. (2002). Transition economies: Performance and challenges. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16(1) 3–28. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/0895330027058.

  • Trembošová M. (2012). Geografické aspekty maloobchodnej siete mesta Nitra (Geographical Aspects of Retailing Network in Nitra City – in Slovak). Nitra: Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa.

  • Vias A. C. (2004). Bigger stores more stores or no stores: paths of retail restructuring in rural America. Journal of Rural Studies 20(3) 303–318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2003.10.003.

  • Walker R. Keane Ch. and Burke J. (2010). Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature. Health & Place 16(5) 876–884. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.04.013.

  • Wilk W. (2006). Western European detail chaos in the Czech Republic Poland and Slovakia – similarities and differences. Miscellanea Geographica 12 205–214.

  • Wilk W. (2013). Koncepcja sieci a geografia zorganizowanego handlu detalicznego w Polsce (The concept of network and geography of organized retailing in Poland – in Polish). Warszawa: Uniwersytet Warszawski.

  • Zubriczký G. (2011). Rurálna deprivácia na Gemeri (Rural deprivation in Gemer – in Slovak). Geographia Cassoviensis 5(1) 133–137.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 1.11

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.218
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.591

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 396 239 2
PDF Downloads 214 133 1