Escalation of tuberculosis notification: an analysis of associated social factors

Abstract

Studies have revealed that socioeconomic factors such as those pertaining to unmarried respondents, dependency, housing congestion and room sharing are associated with tuberculosis rates not only in developing countries but also in developed countries. Karachi has been identified as one of the most vulnerable cities where the spread of TB is increasing with the passage of time. The purpose of the present study is to assess TB notification with reference to some social factors in order that the findings of this study may provide helpful information for guidance related to social and economic policy formulation, at least at the local level to combat and eliminate tuberculosis. The methodology was based on NTP registered patients’ data and social factor analysis data which were acquired through questionnaire survey from notified patients. The result pertaining to TB notification reveals an increasing trend during the last seven years from 2007 until 2013. The notification of female patients compared to that of males is high, which is evidence of the fact that women in Pakistan are more affected but a comparison of patients to the total population in the respective years i.e. the patient population ratio, reveals a decreasing trend. The findings of the study emphasize that the problem of TB control can be resolved expeditiously with the cooperation of the public sector, which should be motivated to meet the core requirements of the programme at various administrative levels and strongly enforced standards of quality of life.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ali, T., Krantz, G., Gul, R., Asad, N., Johansson, E. and Mogren, I., 2011: Gender roles and their influence on life prospects for women in urban Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study. In: Global Health Action, Vol. 4, pp. 1-9. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.3402/gha.v4i0.7448

  • Altet-Gomez, M.N., Alcaide, J, Godoy, P., Romero, M.A., Hernandez, and del Rey, I., 2005: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of smoking and tuberculosis: A study of 13,038 cases. In: International Journal of Tuberculosis Lung Disease, Vol. 9, pp. 430-436.

  • Auclair, C. and Guenter, K., 2002: The Habitat Agenda, Global Urban Indicators, and the City Development Index, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Nairobi.

  • Chiang, C.Y., Slama, K. and Enarson, D.A., 2007: Associations between tobacco and tuberculosis, In: International Journal of Tuberculosis Lung Disease, Vol. 11(1), pp. 258-262.

  • Clark, W.A.V., Deurloo, M. and Dieleman, F.M., 2000: Housing Consumption and Residential Crowding in U.S. Housing Markets. In: Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 22(1), pp. 49-63.

  • Clark, M., Riben, P. and Nowgesic, E., 2002: The association of housing density, isolation and tuberculosis in Canadian First Nations communities, In: International Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 31(5), pp. 940-945. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1093/ije/31.5.940

  • Cobb, W.C. and Rixford, C., 1998: Lessons Learned from the History of Social Indicators: San Francisco: Redefining Progress: pp. 1- 36.

  • Cohen, A. and Mehta, S., 2007: Pollution and Tuberculosis: Outdoor Sources. In: PLoS Medicine, Vol. 4(3), e142. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040142

  • Creswell, J.W., 2013: Research Design (International Student Edition): Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, Fourth Edition: New Delhi: SAGE, Social Sciences: pp. 1-342.

  • Enagi, A., 2011: Analysis of effect of overcrowding on the spread of tuberculosis using deterministic modelling approach: A case study of internally displaced riverside settlements by hydroelectric generating power stations of Nigeria. In. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research, Vol. 6(2), pp. 41-51.

  • Ezzati, M. and Kammen D. M., 2001: Quantifying the effects of exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion on acute respiratory infections in developing countries. In. Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 109(5), pp. 481-488.

  • (GoP) Government of Pakistan, 2000: Provincial Census Report 1998 - Sindh, Statistics Division, Population Census Organization, Islamabad.

  • Gupta, D., Das, K., Balamughesh, T., Aggarwal, A.N. and Jindal, S.K., 2004: Role of socio-economic factors in tuberculosis prevalence. In. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, Vol. 51, pp. 27-31.

  • Hasan, R., Jabeen, K., Ali, A., Rafiq, Y., Laiq R., Malik, B., Tanveer, M., Groenheit, R., Ghebremichael, S., Hoffner, S. and Hasan Z., 2010: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Pakistan. In. Emerging Infectious Disease. Vol.16(9), pp. 1473-1475.

  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1609.100280

  • Huda, S.N. and Burke, F., 2011: Social and Economic Inequalities in Sindh, Province, Pakistan- A Spatial Perspective, In. The Research Journal of Sciences and Technology, Vol. 2(1&2), pp. 17-29.

  • Huda, S.N., Burke, F., Azam, M. and Gadiwala, S., 2013a: Social and economic inequality in Sindh - A factorial analysis approach. In. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 5(6), pp. 205- -218. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.5897/IJSA11.50

  • Huda, S.N., Burke, F., Anwar, E., Ahmed, I., Miandad, M and Azam, M., 2013b: Spatial analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentration in Karachi, Megapolis, Pakistan. In. Lasbela University Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 2, pp. 1-18.

  • Jassal, M.S., Bakman, I. and Jones, B., 2013: Correlation of ambient pollution levels and heavilytrafficked roadway proximity on the prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis. In. Public Health, Vol. 12(7), pp. 268-274. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2012.12.030.

  • Kolappan, C. and Subramani, R., 2009: Association between biomass fuel and pulmonary tuberculosis: a nested case control study. In. Thorax, Vol. 64, pp. 705-718. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1136/thx.2008.109405.

  • Lin, H.H., Ezzati, M. and Murray, M., 2007: Tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In. PLoS Med, Vol. 4(1), e20. http://dx.doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040020

  • Mehta, S., Shin, H., Burnett, R., North, T. and Cohen, A.J., 2013: Ambient particulate air pollution and acute lower respiratory infections: a systematic review and implications for estimating the global burden of disease. In. Air Qual Atmos Health, Vol. 6, pp. 69-83. http://dx.doi.10.1007/s11869-011-0146-3

  • Metzger, P., Baloch, N.A., Kazi G.N. and Bile, K.M., 2010: Tuberculosis control in Pakistan: reviewing a decade of success and challenges. In. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol. 16, pp. 47-53.

  • Miandad, M., Burke, F., Huda, S.N. and Azam, M., 2014: Tuberculosis incidence in Karachi: A spatio- temporal analysis. In. Geografia - Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, Vol. 10(5), pp. 01-08.

  • National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) [Pakistan] and Macro International Inc. 2008. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07. Islamabad, Pakistan: National Institute of Population Studies and Macro International Inc.

  • NTPP, 2012. National tuberculosis control programme, Pakistan, Annual Report. Ministry of Health and Coordination, Government of Pakistan.

  • Perez-Padilla R, Perez-Guzman C, Baez-Saldana, R. and Torres-Cruz A., 2005: Cooking with biomass stoves and tuberculosis: A case control study. In. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol. 5, pp. 441-447.

  • Ploubidis, G.B., Palmer, M.J., Blackmore, C., Lim, T.A., Manissero, D., Sandgren, A. and Semenza, J.C., 2012: Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study. In. The European respiratory journal, Vol. 40, pp. 925-930. DOI: http://dx-.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00184011

  • Rabbani, F., Qureshi, F. and Rizvi, N., 2008: Perspectives on domestic violence: case study from Karachi, Pakistan. In. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol.14, pp. 415-26.

  • Rodwell, T.C., Kapasi, A.J., Barnes, R.F.W. and Moser, K.S., 2012: Factors associated with genotype clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in an ethnically diverse region of southern California, United States. In. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 12, pp. 1917-1925. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2012.08.022

  • Shah, S. K., Dogar, O. F. and Soddoqo, K., 2014: Tuberculosis in women from Pashtun region: an ecological study in Pakistan. In Epidemiology & Infection. Vol. 3, pp. 1-9. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1017/S095026881400168X

  • Souza, V.W., Ximenes, R., Albuquerque, F.M.M., Lapa, T.M., José, L. Portugal, J.L., Lima, L.C.M. and Martelli, C.M.T., 2000: The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil. In. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/ Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 8(6), pp. 403-410. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892000001100005

  • Tomás, A.B., Bueno, P.C., Guillén, C.A., Solvas, J. and Pool, R., 2013: Tuberculosis in Migrant Populations. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Literature. In. PLoS ONE, Vol. 8(12), pp. 1-12. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082440

  • WHO, 2013. World Health Organization, Annual Report. Available from: http://www.who.int/whr/en/, DoA: 10 May, 2014

  • Woodruff, T.J., Parker, J.D. and Schoendorf, K.C., 2006: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and selected causes of postneonatal infant mortality in California. In. Environmental Health Perspective. Vol. 114(5), pp. 786-790. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.1289/ehp.8484

  • Zaman, R.M., Stewart, S.M. and Zaman, T.R., 2006: Pakistan: culture, community, and familial obligations in a Muslim society. In: Georgas, J, Berry, J.W., De Vijver, F.R.V., Kagitcibasi, C., Poortinga, Y.H. editors, Families, a cross cultures: a 30 nation psychological study, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 427-34.

  • Zammarchi, L., Bartalesi, F. and Bartoloni, A., 2014: Tuberculosis in Tropical Areas and Immigrants. In. Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, Vol.6(1), pp 1-12. DOI: http://dx.doi:10.4084/MJHID.2014

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search