Public treasury looting for global North banking, public welfare denial, migration and sex-slave trafficking of Nigerians after colonialism

Open access


Enslaving and victimising the poor by criminals within and outside governments of underdeveloped countries is gaining attention of academics in the social sciences. This article clarifies inter-relationships among modern slavery and trafficking in girls/women for sexual exploitation. It also shows how vulnerability of people victimised by the crime has been increased by policies deriving from neo-liberalism. To facilitate explication of the variables/issues, the study was based on the theoretical/doctrinal and political aspects of neo-liberalism, coinciding with scenarios of declining welfare, increasing susceptibility/vulnerability of Nigeria’s poor (non-elite) and massive unemployed youth to out-migration and traffickers in persons. The explicated issues include modern slavery (generally and trafficking in Nigerian girls/women for sexual exploitation abroad) as well as the relationships among treasury looting and stashing of the loot in the banks of the global North. It is explained how declining welfare (i.e. multiple-dimensional adversities e.g. unemployment) provokes desires in the unemployed to out-migrate and increases their susceptibility to trafficking in persons. Finally, the article is concluded.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aboyade O. 1971: The Development Process in: A.A. Ayida and H.M.A. Onitiri (editors) Reconstruction and Development in Nigeria (Proceedings of a National Conference). Ibadan: Oxford University Press: 72-80.

  • Adams P. 1991: Odious Debts: Loose lending corruption and the Third World’s environmental legacy London: Earthscan.

  • Adekeye F. 2008: Candlelight for 20-2020. In: TELL 8 No. 49 December Lagos: TELL Communications Ltd. pp. 18-23.

  • Afiekhena J. 2005: Managing oil rent for sustainable development and poverty reduction in Africa. Unpublished paper presented at UNU-WIDER Jubilee Conference: “Thinking ahead: The future of development economics Helsinki. Accessed 3 August 2013 from:

  • Africa Confidential. no year: Sani Abacha General: Who’s who. Retrieved 17 March 2014 from: http://

  • African Development Bank [ADB] 2013: Federal Government of Nigeria: Country Strategy Paper 2013-2017 ORWA Department. Accessed 3 August 2013 at:

  • Agbiboa D.E. 2010: The Corruption-Underdevelopment Nexus in Africa: Which Way Nigeria? In: Journal of Social Political and Economic Studies 34 (5) pp. 474-509.

  • Agbiboa D.E. 2012: Between corruption and development: The political economy of state robbery in Nigeria. In: Journal of Business Ethics 108 pp. 325-45.

  • Agbiboa D.E. 2013: Corruption and economic crimes in Nigeria: Social and economic perspectives. In: African Security Review 22(1) pp. 47-66.

  • Al-Mahfedi M.H.K. 2011: Edward Said’s “Imaginative Geography” and Geopolitical Mapping: Knowledge/ Power Constellation and Landscaping Palestine. In: The Criterion: An International Journal in English II(III): pp. 1-26. Accessed 4 August 2013 from:

  • Akor L. 2011: Trafficking of women in Nigeria: Causes consequences and the way forward. In: Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 2 (2) pp. 89-110.

  • Alarming in Europe! 100000 Nigerian Girls Enslave(d) in Drugs 2014. In: Nigeria Satandard retrieved 3 February 2014 from:

  • Ashcroft B. and Ahluwalia P. 2001: Edward Said (Routledge critical thinkers: essential guides for literary studies) London and New York: Routledge.

  • Alatas S.H. 1968: Corruption: Its nature causes and functions Aldershot: Avebury.

  • Altvater E. 2009: Postneo-liberalism or postcapitalism. The failure of neo-liberalism in the in the financial market crisis. In: Brand U. and Sekler N. editors Postneo-liberalism; a beginning debate development dialogue Uppsala no. 51 January pp. 77-88.

  • Associated Press (AP) 2013: AP. 2013. “Italy divers find ‘wall’ of bodies in migrant ship”. Accessed 18/02/2014 from: based on a report by AP. 13 April; / 7 October.

  • Ayittey G.B.N. 1986: The real foreign debt problem. In: The Wall Street Journal (New York) 8 April.

  • Ayittey C.B.N. 1992: Africa Betrayed New York: St. Martin Press.

  • Bayer K. 2009: Neo-liberalism and development policy- Dogma or Progress? In: Brand U. and Sekler N. editors Postneo-liberalism; a beginning debate development dialogue No. 51 pp. 89-102.

  • Babawale G.K. and Awosanya O.A. 2014: Estimating household willingness to pay for improved electricity supply in Lagos metropolis. In: British Journal of Economics Management & Trade 4(5) pp. 672-93 accessed 18 January 2014 from: www.sciencedomain. org.

  • Bales K. and Lize S. 2005: Trafficking in persons in USA (Report to the National Institute of Justice) August p. 156.

  • BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation UK) 2014: ‘Spanish police arrest 25 in “Nigeria sex-trafficking ring”’ (BBC report uploaded 2013/November 10) retrieved 25 January 2014 from:

  • BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation UK) 2013: Italy divers wall bodies migrant ship accessed 17 March 2014 from:; and

  • Brand U. and Sekler N. 2009: Postneo-liberalism: catch-all word or valuable analytical and political concept? - Aims of a beginning debate. In: Brand U. and Sekler N. editors Postneo-liberalism; a beginning debate development dialogue No. 51 pp. 5-13.

  • Brand U. and Sekler N. editors 2009: Postneo-liberalism; a beginning debate development dialogue No. 51 p. 212. ‘BussinessDay’s Report on (Nigeria’s) Economic Transformation’ In: BussinessDay (Lagos) 29 Nov. 2011: 21. Accessed 14 January 2012 from online at: and

  • Bakre O.M. 2008: Looting by the Ruling Elites Multinational Corporations and the Accountants: The Genesis of Indebtedness Poverty and Underdevelopment of Nigeria (Unpublished research paper on file at the School of Accounting Finance & Management University of Essex UK) retrieved 8 April 2013 from:

  • Bribe Nigeria (no year/date): FG Uncovers Fresh N3.2tr Abacha Loot retrieved 6 February 2014 from: https://

  • Callaway A. 1966: Education and the Rise of Youth Unemployment. In: Lloyd P.C. Mabogunje A.L. and Awe B. editors The City of Ibadan Cambridge: University Press.

  • Carling J. (no year): Migration Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe. International Organisation for Migration (IOM Migration Research Series No. 3) Oslo: International Peace Research Institute for International Organisation for Migration (IOM) retrieved 3 November 2012 from:

  • Ceceňa A.E. 2009: Post-neo-liberalism and its bifurcations. In: Brand U. and Sekler N. editors Postneoliberalism; a beginning debate development dialogue No. 51 pp. 33-44.

  • Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Nigeria (CBCN) 1998: Prayer Against Bribery and Corruption in Nigeria Abuja/Lagos: Catholic Secretariat of Nigeria.

  • Commission for Africa 2005: Our Common Interest: Report of the Commission for Africa London: HMG.

  • Conference of Nigeria’s Political Parties (CNPP) demands new method to recover $400 billion stolen funds accessed 18 February 2014 from:

  • Economic-growth-without-development 2012. In: Daily Independent (Lagos) July 2012 retrieved 4 July 2012 from:

  • England K. and Ward K. 2007: Conclusion: Reflections on neoliberalisation. In: England K. and Ward K. editors Neoliberalisation: States networks people Malden MA: Blackwell pp. 248-262.

  • Euroda (Undated): Switzerland Nigeria and the repatriation of stolen loot accessed 6 February 2014 from:

  • Friedman M. 2002 [1992]: Capitalism and freedom. Special 40th anniversary edition Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • George S. 1988: A Fate Worse Than Debt: A Radical analysis of the Third World Debt New York: Penguin. General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (IBB) accessed 6 February 2014 from:

  • Glassman J. 2009: Neo-liberalism. In: Gregory D. Johnston R. Pratt G. Watts M. and Whatmore S. editors The Dictionary of Human Geography Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell pp. 497-498.

  • Gold Diggers in Government: How the Political Class Bleeds Nigeria 2011. In: Newswatch (Lagos) 27 June 2011 pp. 14-19.

  • Gregory D. 2004: The colonial present: Afghanistan Palestine and Iran London: Wiley/Blackwell.

  • Gregory D. 2011: The everywhere war. In: The Geographical Journal 77 (3) pp. 238-250.

  • Gregory D. Johnson R. Pratt G. Watts M. and Whatmore S. editors. 2009: The Dictionary of Human Geography Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Harvey D. 2005: A brief history of neo-liberalism Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Harvey D. 1973: Social justice and the city London: Edward Arnold.

  • Hayek von F. 1981: The political order of a free people Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Hayek von F. 1944: The road to serfdom Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • IBB Never Again Campaign: Call To Prosecute and Ban General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida From Holding Public Office In Nigeria 2010 (14 November) accessed 18 January 2014 from:

  • Ingwe O. 2005: Politics and Globe Dictionary Aba: Eagle Publishers.

  • Ingwe R. 2009: Persisting poverty unemployment/underemployment in Cross River State Nigeria: The urgency of improving good governance and participation in the State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy. In: International NGO Journal available at:

  • Ingwe R. 2012: Governance deficits and nationalisation of sub-national rebellions in Nigeria: The January 2012 rebellion against oil subsidy removal and emerging nationalisation of revolutionary forces (Unpublished paper on file at CRADLE).

  • Ingwe R. 2013: Modern slavery’s regional dimensions and the global alliance against human trafficking: a review (Unpublished paper on file at CRADLE).

  • Ingwe R. 2014: Road infrastructure development in Nigeria: comparing scenarios in Nigeria’s six geopolitical zones with reference to the south-south zone (Unpublished research article on file at CRADLE).

  • Ingwe R. Ada J.A. and Angiating I. 2013: Manufacturing investment intensification in Calabar Free Trade Zone and environs South-Eastern and South-South Nigeria: Transition of a (Sub)national region from backwardness to growth (Unpublished paper on file at CRADLE).

  • Ingwe R. Ikeji C.C. and Ojong F.E. 2010: Neoliberal globalization financial and economic crises and sustainable development in Africa. In: ICFAI University Journal of Governance and Public Policy Vol. 5 (Issue 4) pp. 31-62.

  • Ingwe R. Inyang B.J. Ering S. and Adalikwu R.A. 2009: Sustainable energy implementation in urban Nigeria. In: Management Research and Practice Bucharest: the Academy of Management Bucharest Vol. 1 No. 1 pp. 39-57.

  • Ingwe R. Mboto W.A. and Ugwu U. 2012: Transnational crime human rights violation and human trafficking in Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta. In: Romanian Journal of Society and Politics No. 3 pp. 65-93.

  • International Labour Organisation (ILO) 2005: Global Alliance against Forced Labour Geneva: ILO.

  • Katz C. 2001: On the grounds of globalization: a topography for feminist political engagement. Signs. In: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 26 (4) pp. 1213-34.

  • Khor M. 2000: Globalisation and the South: Some critical issues Ibadan: Spectrum Books.

  • Kirstin J.F. 1996: Nigeria: a federation gone wrong. In: Koers 6 pp. 499-509.

  • Life in Nigeria after selling sex in Europe (Kliden no date) accessed 25 January 2014 from:

  • Lombardi R.W. 1985: Debt Trap New York: Praeger.

  • Looting Spree: How Ex-Governors (of most of Nigeria’s 36 states) Squandered Public Funds 2011. In: Newswatch (Lagos) 13 June 2011 pp. 14-19.

  • Naija F. 2009: Nigeria is the largest African source of trafficked women to Europe and Asia 23 August 2009 available at: accessed 26 January 2014 from:

  • NAPTIP National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic In Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP) (Undated) accessed 26 January 2014 from: National Bureau of Statistics [NBS] 2010: Nigeria Poverty profile Abuja: NBS.

  • Naylor R.T. 1987: Hot money and the politics of debt Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

  • Nigeria FR. 2010: Annual Abstracts of Statistics Abuja: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).

  • Nigeria FR. 2006: Annual Abstracts of Statistics Abuja: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).

  • Nigerian Tribune 2007: 40 million Nigerian youths unemployed - FG - Plans Summit on youth unemployment - 80% Nigerian graduates unemployable - Education Minister. In: Nigerian Tribune (Abuja/ Lagos) 25 February 2009 p. 20 (correspondent reports by S.E. Fagbemi and C. Idoko).

  • Ogbeidi M.M. 2012: Political leadership and corruption in Nigeria since 1960: A socio-economic analysis. In: Journal of Nigerian Studies Vol. 1 No. 2 pp. 1-25.

  • Omoigui N. (undated): Operation ‘Aure’: The Northern Military Counter-Rebellion of July 1966 accessed 4 February 2014 from:

  • Omojola B. 2007: The Niger Delta: Rich but very poor. In: Africa Today (London) Vol. 13 No. 10 pp. 20-39.

  • Osiki O.M. 2010: Benin city’s contribution to global human trafficking; A historical reality and an ethical dilemma In: Agwuele A.O. Nwankwo U.M. and Akinwumi O. editors Multi-disciplinary Perspectives on Overcoming the African Predicament proceedings of the 2010 Berlin-Africa Conference Berlin: MediaTeam pp. 40-56.

  • Oyejide T.A. Soyode A. and Kayode M.O. 1985: Nigeria and the IMF Ibadan: Heinemann.

  • Ozanne J. 1991: Angola: “An economic ostrich”. In: The Financial Post Toronto 10 May.

  • Parliament of Canada 2007a: Evidence for 38th Parliament of Canada by Mr. G. Ayittey professor of Economics American University Washingtion D.C. 10 May 2005 retrieved 17 March 2014 from:

  • Parliament of Canada 2007b: Overcomming 40 years of failure: A new road map for sub-Saharan Africa. The standing senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade Parliament of Canada February retrieved 17 March 2014 from:

  • Parfitt T.W. and Riley S.P. 1989: The African Debt Crisis London: Routledge.

  • Peck J. and Tickell A. 2002: Neoliberalising space. In: Antipode 34(3) pp. 380-404.

  • Pervasive corruption in the House. In: BussinessDay - Editorial (Lagos) 29 June-01 July 2012 pp. 10.

  • Rees M. 2012: The gendered dimension of sex trafficking. Centre on Democracy Development and the Rule of Law (CDDRL) Stanford University (USA) accessed 17 March 2014 from:

  • RTORT 2005: Afflicted powers: capital and spectacle in a new age of war London and New York: Verso.

  • Ribadu N. 2009: Corruption: The Nigeria example. In; The Week (Lagos) Vol. 28 No. 13 1 June 2009 pp. 50 and Vol. 29 No. 14 8 June pp. 50.

  • Ricardo D. 1992 [1817]: (The) principles of political economy and taxation Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press/London: Dent/New York: Dutton.

  • Robbins B. Pratt M.L.R. and Said E. 1994: Edward Said’s culture and imperialism: a symposium. In: Social text 12 (3) pp. 1-24.

  • Rodney W. 1972: How Europe Underdeveloped Africa Owerri: Ikenga.

  • Smith A. 1976 [1776]: The wealth of nations Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Smith D.J. 2007: A Culture of Corruption: Everyday Deception and popular Discontent in Nigeria Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

  • Springer S. 2010: Neo-liberalism and Geography: Expansions Variegations Formations. In: Geography Compass 4/8 pp. 1025-1038.

  • Springer S. 2011: Articulated neo-liberalism: the specificity of patronage kleptocracy and violence in Cambodia’s neoliberalisation. In: Environment & Planning A Vol. 43 pp. 2554-2570.

  • Springer S. 2012a: Neoliberalising violence: of the exceptional and the exemplary in coalescing moments. In: Area (2012) 44.2 pp. 136-143. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2012.01084.x.

  • Springer S. 2012b: Violent accumulation: a post-anarchist critique of property dispossession and the state of exception in neoliberalising Cambodia. In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers/Taylor & Francis Vol. 103 (3) pp. 603-626.

  • Springer S. 2012c: Anarchism! What Geography Still Ought To Be. In: Antipode DOI.10/1111/j1467-8330.201201034x.

  • Stolper W.F. 1971: “Comments on” Aboyade O. 1971. “The Development Process”. In: Ayida A.A. and Onitiri H.M.A. editors Reconstruction and Development in Nigeria proceedings of a National Conference Ibadan: Oxford University Press pp. 72-80.

  • The Guardian (mobile) 2013: Why Abacha others are still in Swiss banks accessed 6 February 2014 from: uploaded 5 November.

  • The great $6.8 (billion) oil scandal 2012. In: The Africa Report (Paris) 6/2012 pp. 36-40 accessible in July and afterwards at:

  • ThisDay 2013: Six of ten trafficked persons are Nigerian. In: ThisDay (Lagos) 18 September 18 accessed 26 January 2014 from:

  • Todaro M. and Smith S.C. 2005: Economic Development New Delhi: Pearson.

  • Tracy J.D. editor 1990: The rise of merchant empires New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • UNCHR (no date/year): Niger-Nigeria: Porous border aids human trafficking available at: accessed 8 September 2011.

  • UNESCO 2006: Human trafficking in Nigeria: Root cause and Recommendations. In: Policy paper No. 14.2 (E).

  • Vienna Institute for International Dialogue and Cooperation (Weiner Institute fur Internationalen Dialog und Zusammenarbeit (VIDC) 2011: Gender accessed 17 March 2014 from: VIDC.

  • Walk Free Foundation 2013a: Walk Free Foundation. In: Global Slavery Index Findings - Walk accessed 6 February 2014 from:

  • Walk Free Foundation 2013b: The Global Slavery Index 2013 p. 136 retrieved 3 March 2014 from:

  • Wallerstein I. 1974: The Modern World-System Vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century New York/London: Academic Press. (W)e have returned Abacha’s loot - Swiss envoy accessed 6 February 2014 from: Punch The (Lagos) http://

  • World Bank Federal Ministry of Finance 2006: Utilisation of repatriated Abacha loot: Results of the field monitoring exercise Abuja: Report by World Bank Federal Ministry of Finance p. 58.

  • World Bank Watch (US) 3 July 1989.

  • WRI UNDP UNEP World Bank 2003: World Resources 2002-2004: Decisions for the Earth (Balance Voice and Power) Washington DC; World Resources Institute (WRI). 100000 Nigerian Girls Enslave in Drugs Prostitution. In: Nigerian Standard (Lagos) accessed 26 January 2014 from:

Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 1.11

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.218
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.591

Gesamte Zeit Letztes Jahr Letzte 30 Tage
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 394 218 15
PDF Downloads 184 108 3