The hosting of mega events in the Global South has become a symbol of prestige and national pride. From the hosting of international mega events such as the world cup, to regional events like the Commonwealth Games, developing nations are hosting mega events frequently and on a massive scale. Often used as a justification for this escapade in hosting a mega event is the purposed infrastructural legacy that will remain after the event. From the bid documents of the London Olympics to the Delhi Common Wealth Games, the pretext of infrastructural legacy is cited as a legitimate reason for spending the billions of dollars needed for hosting the event. This paper looks at this justification in the context of the All Africa Games which was hosted in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1999. It examines how the legacy infrastructure from this event has been utilised as a social housing development and how the billions of dollars spent on the infrastructural legacy of the games has been used by local residence of the city. The vast majority of the current residence of the All Africa Games Athletes’ Village have little recollection of the Games and do not feel that the housing stock they have received is of significantly better quality than that of other social housing. This points to the contentious claim that developmental infrastructure built through hosting a mega event is of superior quality or brings greater benefit to the end users. That is not to say that hosting a mega event does not have benefits; however, the claim of development through hosting, in the case of Johannesburg, seems disingenuous.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
AAG (All African Games) 1995: 7th All African Games Bid document: Johannesburg South Africa. Department of Sports and Culture: Pretoria.
AAG (All African Games). 1999: 7th All African Games Department of Sports and Culture: Pretoria.
Andranovich G. Burbank M. and Heying C. 2001: Olympic cities: Lessons learned from mega-event politics. In: Journal of Urban Affairs 23 pp. 113-131.
Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa 2011: The All Africa Games shall henceforth be organized by ANOCA and the AASC ANOCA Magazine DOI:http://www.webcaa.org/eng/index. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=78 4&Itemid=35
Bamossy G. and Stephens S. 2003: Utah Image and Awareness: The Post-Olympics European Study 2002. Salt Lake City UT: University of Utah Ec cles School of Businesscontextualizing Olympic legacies.
BBC News 1999: World: Africa Africa’s sporting stars head for Johannesburg BBC Online Network. DOI: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/442175.stm
Beauregard R. 1993: Constituting economic development: A theoretical perspective. In: Bingham R. and Mier R. editors Theories of Local Economic Development Newbury Park CA: Sage pp. 267-283.
Bénit-Gbaffou C. 2009: In the shadow of 2010: Democracy and displacement in the Greater Ellis Park Development project. In: Pillay U. Bass O. and Tomlinson R. editors Development and Dreams HSRC Press: Cape Town pp. 200-222.
Brown D. 2004: Post-Olympism: Olympic legacies sport spaces and the practices of everyday life. In: Bale J and Christensen M. editors Post-Olympism? New York NY: Berg.
Burbank M. Andranovich G. and Heying C. 2001: Olympic Dreams: The Impact of Mega-events on Local Politics Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner.
Burbank M. Heying C. and Andranovich G. 2000: Antigrowth politics or piece-meal resistance? Citizen opposition to Olympic-related economic growth. In: Urban Affairs Review 35 pp. 334-357.
Campbell H. and Marshall M. 2000: Moral obligations planning and the public interest: a commentary on current British practice. In: Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 27(2) pp. 297-312.
Cashdan B. 1998: Local Government and Poverty in South Africa Unpublished Background Paper for the SA Department of Constitutional Development and the UK Department for International Development.
Cashman R. 1999: Legacy. In: Cashman R. and Hughes A. editors Staging the Olympics: The Event and Its Impact Sydney Australia University of New South Wales Press pp. 57-69.
Cashman R. 2004: The future of a multi-sport megaevent. In: Bale J. and Christensen M. editors Post- Olympism? New York NY: Berg pp. 119-134.
Chappelet J. 2008: Olympic environmental concerns as a legacy of the winter games. In: The International Journal of the History of Sport 25 (14) pp. 165-174.
Clark G. 2008: Local Development Benefits from Staging Global Events Paris: OECD Publications.
Cornelissen S. 2004: Sport mega-events in Africa: processes impacts and prospects. In: Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development 1(1) pp. 39-55.
Deccio C. and Baloglu S. 2002: Nonhost community resident reactions to the 2002 winter games: The spillover impacts. In: Journal of Travel Research 41 pp. 46-56. de Moragas M. Kennett C. and Puig N. 2002: The Legacy of the Olympic Games 1984-2000. Proceedings of the International Symposium 14-16 Nov. 2002. Lausanne Switzerland: International Olympic Committee.
Deseret News Editorial 2007: Olympic benefit incalculable. In: Deseret News. DOI: http://www.deseretnews. com/article/660193594/Olympic-benefit-incalculable. html Dinces S. 2005: Padres on Mount Olympus: Los Angeles and the production of the 1932 Olympic megaevent. In: Journal of Sport History 32 pp. 135-166.
Dyreson M. and Llewellyn M. 2008: Los Angeles is the Olympic city: Legacies of the 1932 and 1984 Olympic games. In: The International Journal of the History of Sport 25 pp. 1991-2018.
Essex S. and Chalkley B. 1998: Olympic games: Catalyst of urban change. In: Leisure Studies 17 pp. 187- -206.
Essex S. and Chalkley B. 2007: The Winter Olympics: Driving urban change 1896- 2004. In: Gold J. and Gold M. editors Olympic Cities: City Agendas Planning and the World’s Games 1896-2012 New York NY: Routledge pp. 48-58.
Getz D. 1989: Special events: defining the product. In: Tourism Management 10(2) pp. 125-137.
Getz D. 2008: Event tourism: Definition evolution and research. In: Tourism management 29(3) pp. 403-428.
Gold J. and Gold M. 2007: Access for all: the rise of the Paralympics within the Olympic movement. In: Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 127 (3) pp. 133-141.
Gold J. and Gold M. 2011: Olympic cities: city agendas planning and the World’s Games 1896-2016 2nd ed. Abingdon Oxon: Routledge.
Gunter A. 2005: Integrated Development Plans and Local Economic Development: The case of Mpumalanga Province South Africa. In: African Insight 35(4) pp. 32 - 38.
Higham J. 2005: Sport Tourism Destinations: Issues Opportunities and Analysis Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Hiller H. 2003: Mega-events Urban Boosterism and Growth Strategies: An Analysis of the Objectives and Legitimations of the Cape Town 2004 Olympic Bid. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24(2) pp. 449-458.
Kissoudi P. 2008: The Athens Olympics: optimistic legacies- post-Olympic assets and the struggle for their realization. In: The International Journal of the History of Sport 25(14) pp. 1972-1990.
Kotze N. and Mathola A. 2012: Satisfaction Levels and the Community’s Attitudes Towards Urban Renewal in Alexandra Johannesburg. In: Urban Forum 23(1) pp. 245-256.
Lenskyj H. 2000: Inside the Olympic Industry: Power Politics and Activism New York: New York University Press.
Lenskyj H. 2004: Making the world safe for global capital: The Sydney 2000 Olympics and Beyond In Bale J. and Christensen M. editors: Post Olympism? Questioning Sport in the Twenty-first Century. London: Berg Publishers pp. 135-45.
Liao H. and Pitts A. 2006: A Brief Historical Review of Olympic Urbanisation. In: International Journal of the History of Sport 23 (7) pp. 1232-1252.
MaCorr Inc. 2009: Sample Size Calculator. DOI: http:// www.macorr.com/ss_calculator.htm Mangan J. 2008: Prologue: Guarantees of Global Goodwill: Post-Olympic Legacies-Too Many Limping White Elephants? In: The International Journal of the History of Sport 25(14) pp. 1869-1883.
Manor J. 2004: Democratisation with Inclusion: Political Reforms and People’s Empowerment at the Grassroots. In: Journal of Human Development 5(1) pp. 5-29.
Murphy P. 1985: Tourism: A Community Approach New York: Methuen.
Nel E. and John L. 2006: The Evolution of Local Economic Development in South Africa. In: Pillay. U. Tomlinson R. and du Toit J. editors Democracy and Delivery: Urban Policy in South Africa Cape Town: HSRC Press.
Newman P. 2007: “Back the Bid”: the 2012 Summer Olympics and the governance of London. In: Journal of urban affairs 29(3) pp. 255-267.
O’Leary Z. 2004: The Essential Guide to Doing Research London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Peck J. and Tickell A. 2002: Neoliberalising Space. In: Antipode 34 (3) pp. 380-404.
Pieterse E. 1998: Introduction. In Linking Local Economic Development to Poverty Alleviation Pretoria: Isandla Institute Department of Constitutional Development.
Pillay U. and Bass O. 2008: Mega-events as a response to poverty reduction: the 2010 FIFA World Cup and its urban development implications. In: Urban Forum 19(3) pp. 329-346.
Preuss H. 2000: Economics of the Olympic Games: hosting the Games 1972-2000. Sydney. DOI: http:// www.sport.uni-mainz.de/Preuss/eprbeitr.html Roche M. 2000: Mega-Events and Modernity: Olympics and Expos in the Growth of Global Culture London: Routledge.
Rogerson C. 1999: Local Economic Development and Urban Poverty Alleviation: The Experience of Post- Apartheid South Africa. In: Habitat International 23(4) pp. 511-534.
Rogerson C. 2006: Local Economic Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Ten-year Research Review. In: Padayachee V. editor The Development Decade? Economic and Social Change in South Africa 1994-2004 Cape Town: HSRC Press pp. 227-253.
Roy A. 2005: Urban informality: toward an epistemology of planning. In: Journal of the American Planning Association 71(2) pp. 147-158.
Senn A. 1999: Power politics and the Olympic Games: A history of the power brokers events and controversies that shaped the Games Champaign: Human Kinetics.
Shaw C. 2008: Five Ring Circus: Myths and Realities of the Olympic Games Gabriola: New Society Publishers.
Shoval N. 2002: A new phase in the competition for the Olympic gold: the London and New York bids for 2012 Games. In: Journal of Urban Affairs 24(5) pp. 583-599.
Smith A. 2005: Reimaging the city: the value of sport initiatives. In: Annals of Tourism Research 32(1) pp. 217-236.
Smith C. and Himmelfarb K. 2007: Restructuring Beijing’s social space: observations on the Olympic Games in 2008. In: Eurasian Geography and Economics 48 (5) pp. 543-554.
Tomlinson R. 2003: The Local Economic Development Mirage in South Africa. In: Geoforum 34(1) pp. 113- -122.
Tomlinson R. 2010: Whose accolades? An alternative perspective on motivations for hosting the Olympics. In: Urban Forum 21 (2) pp. 139-152.
Van Donk M. Swilling M. Pieterse E. and Parnell S. 2008: Consolidating Developmental Local Government: Lessons from the South African Experience Cape Town: CT Press.
Westaway M. 2006: A longitudinal investigation of satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life in an informal South African housing settlement Doorenkop Soweto. In: Habitat International 30 pp. 175-189.
Winkler H. 2009: “Changing development paths: From an energy-intensive to low-carbon economy in South Africa”. In: Climate and Development 1(1) pp. 47-65.