Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.
15. Churchill, Winston. “Speech at a Conservative Mass Meeting, Llandudno, 9 October 1948”: 417–418. In: Randolph S. Churchill, ed. Europe Unite–Speeches (1947).
16. Churchill, Winston. “Speech at Harvard University, 6 September 1943.” Onwards to Victory (1944).
17. Churchill, Winston. “Speech to the Academic Youth.” Zürich, Switzerland (1946).
18. Churchill, Winston. “Speech to the House of Commons.” The Official Report, House of Commons (5th Series) 444 (1947): 206–207.
19. Churchill, Winston. Europe Unites: The Story of the Campaign for European Unity, Including a Full Report of the Congress of Europe Held at The Hague, May, 1948. London: Hollis & Carter, 1949.
20. Churchill, Winston. The Second World War. Vol. 3. Houghton Mifflin, 1950.
21. Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis. Vol. 1. Scribner, 1963.
22. Coombs, David, Minnie Churchill, and Winston Churchill. Sir Winston Churchill: His life and His Paintings. Running Press, 2004.
23. D’Este, Carlo. Warlord: The Fighting Life of Winston Churchill, from Soldier to Statesman. Penguin, 2010.
24. Dinan, Desmond. Europe Recast: A History of European Union. Vol. 373. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
25. Duchin, Brian R. “The ‘Agonizing Reappraisal’: Eisenhower, Dulles, and the European Defense Community.” Diplomatic History Vol. 16, No. 2 (1992): 201–221.
26. Dutton, David. Anthony Eden: A Life and Reputation. London: Arnold, 1997.
27. Eden, Anthony. The Reckoning: The Memoirs of Anthony Eden, Earl of Avon. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1965.
28. Evans, Harold. Downing Street Diary: The Macmillan Years, 1957-1963. Hodder & Stoughton, 1981.
29. Gibilaro, Massimo. “Winston Churchill: A Founder of the European Union.” Neweuropeans.net (2013).
30. Giddens, Anthony. “Un continent turbulent i podereós: quin és el futur d'Europa?” [A turbulent and powerful continent: what is the future of Europe?]. Eines per a l'esquerra nacional Vol. 20, No. 20 (2014).
31. Gilbert, Martin. Churchill: A Life. Macmillan, 1992.
32. Gilbert, Martin. Churchill's Political Philosophy. Vol. 1980. Oxford University Press, 1981.
33. Hayton, Richard. “Towards the Mainstream? UKIP and the 2009 Elections to the European Parliament.” Politics Vol. 30, No. 1 (2010): 26–35.
34. Hughes, E. J. “Winston Churchill and the Formation of the United Nations Organization.” Journal of Contemporary History (1974): 177–194.
35. Jenkins, Roy. Churchill. Pan Macmillan, 2012.
36. Kunz, Josef L. “Treaty Establishing the European Defense Community.” American Journal of International Law (1953): 275–281.
37. Lord, Christopher. “Sovereign or Confused? The ‘Great Debate’ about British Entry to the European Community 20 Years On.” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies Vol. 30, No. 4 (1992): 419–436.
38. Mauter, Wendell R. “Churchill and the Unification of Europe.” Historian Vol. 61, No. 1 (1998): 67–84.
39. Mitrany, David. “The Prospect of Integration: Federal or Functional.” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies Vol. 4, No. 2 (1965): 119–149.
40. Moravcsik, Andrew. “Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach.” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies Vol. 31, No. 4 (1993): 473–524.
41. Pedersen, Thomas. European Union and the EFTA Countries. Enlargement and Integration. Pinter, 1994.
42. Ramiro Troitiño, David. “De Gaulle and the European Communities.” Proceedings of the Institute for European Studies. Tallinn University of Technology No. 4 (2008): 139–152.
43. Ramiro Troitiño, David. “Margaret Thatcher and the EU.” Baltic Journal of European Studies No. 6 (2009): 124–150.
44. Ramiro Troitiño, David. “The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach.” Baltic Journal of European Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 (2014): 119–136.
45. Ramiro Troitiño, David. European Integration: Building Europe. Nova Publishers, 2013.
46. Rasor, Eugene L. Winston S. Churchill, 1874-1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Vol. 6. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.
47. Russell, Douglas. Winston Churchill: Soldier: The Military Life of a Gentleman at War. Conway, 2006.
48. Schuman, Frederick L. “The Council of Europe.” American Political Science Review Vol. 45, No. 03 (1951): 724–740.
49. Shlaim, Avi. “Prelude to Downfall: The British Offer of Union to France, June 1940.” Journal of Contemporary History (1974): 27–63.
50. Spinelli, Altiero. Towards the European Union. Vol. 6. Florence: European University Institute, 1983.
51. Thompson, Reginald William. Generalissimo Churchill. Scribner Book Company, 1973.
52. Walton, Clarence C. “Background for the European Defense Community.” Political Science Quarterly (1953): 42–69.
53. Young, John W. “Churchill’s ‘no’ to Europe: The ‘Rejection’ of European Union by Churchill’s Post-War Government, 1951–1952.” The Historical Journal Vol. 28, No. 04 (1985): 923–937.
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.102 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.276
researchers and scholars in the fields of law and politics, with an acute interest in the cross-pollinations of disciplines, comparative approaches to regional issues, and active dialogue on pressing contemporary issues of theoretical and practical import.