Qualitative Alleviation Of War Reparations In Jus Post Bellum: Analysis Of Travaux Préparatoires Of Article 16 Of The Treaty Of Peace With Japan

Abstract

As a case study contributing to empirical and inductive specifications of the jus post bellum principle for reparations, the author conducts an analysis of a provision of the Treaty of Peace with Japan that mandates that Japan make reparations from attached Japanese assets in neutral and ex-Axis countries to compensate the Allied prisoners of war. This study’s findings elucidate the legal significance of the provision that war reparations can be qualitatively alleviated by virtue of substituting assets for pecuniary reparations, hence presenting inductive substantiation for implementing the jus post bellum principle for reparations.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Blum, Gabriella, and Natalie J. Lockwood. “Earthquakes and Wars: The Logic of International Reparations”: 178-216. In: Larry May and Elizabeth Edenberg, eds. Jus Post Bellum and Transitional Justice. New York: CUP, 2013.

  • 2. Boon, Kristen. “Jus Post Bellum in the Age of Terrorism: Introductory Remarks.” American Society of International Law Proceedings 106 (2012): 331-332.

  • 3. Carlyle, Margaret, ed. Documents on International Affairs 1947-1948. London: Oxford University Press, 1952.

  • 4. Chetail, Vincent. “Introduction: Post-conflict Peacebuilding – Ambiguity and Identity”: 1-33. In: Vincent Chetail, ed. Post-conflict Peacebuilding: A Lexicon. New York: OUP, 2009.

  • 5. Commonwealth Working Party on Japanese Peace Treaty, 1st May to 17th May, 1950, Report, FO371/83830. The United Kingdom National Archives.

  • 6. De Brabandere, Eric. “The Concept of Jus Post Bellum in International Law: A Normative Critique”: 123-141. In: Carsten Stahn, Jennifer S Easterday and Jens Iverson, eds. Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations. New York: OUP, 2014.

  • 7. Dennett, Raymond, and Robert K. Turner, eds. Documents on American Foreign Relations. Vol. 10. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1950.

  • 8. Documents of the Far Eastern Department, FO371/92532. The United Kingdom National Archives.

  • 9. Dunn, Frederick S. Peace-Making and the Settlement with Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

  • 10. Easterday, Jennifer. “Jus Post Bellum in the Age of Terrorism: Remarks by Jennifer Easterday.” American Society of International Law Proceedings 106 (2012): 335-337.

  • 11. Easterday, Jennifer S. “Peace Agreements as a Framework for Jus Post Bellum”: 379-415. In: Carsten Stahn, Jennifer S. Easterday and Jens Iverson, eds. Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations. New York: OUP, 2014.

  • 12. Iverson, Jens. “Contrasting the Normative and Historical Foundations of Transitional Justice and Jus Post Bellum: Outlining the Matrix of Definitions in Comparative Perspective”: 80-101. In: Carsten Stahn, Jennifer S. Easterday and Jens Iverson, eds. Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations. New York: OUP, 2014.

  • 13. Iverson, Jens, Jennifer S. Easterday, and Carsten Stahn. “Epilogue: Jus Post Bellum – Strategic Analysis and Future Directions”: 542-553. In: Carsten Stahn, Jennifer S. Easterday and Jens Iverson, eds. Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations. New York: OUP, 2014.

  • 14. Japanese Peace Treaty: General (C.P.(50)323). The United Kingdom National Archives.

  • 15. Japanese Peace Treaty: Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (C.P.(51)137). The United Kingdom National Archives.

  • 16. Japanese Peace Treaty. Summary Records of Meetings, FO371/92557. The United Kingdom National Archives.

  • 17. Kesaris, Paul, ed. Documents of the National Security Council [microfilm]. Vol. 1, A:I:0301, A:I:0326. Washington, D.C.: University Publications of America, 1980.

  • 18. May, Larry. “Jus Post Bellum, Grotius, and Meionexia”: 15-25. In: Carsten Stahn, Jennifer S. Easterday and Jens Iverson, eds. Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations. New York: OUP, 2014.

  • 19. May, Larry. “Jus Post Bellum in the Age of Terrorism: Remarks by Larry May.” American Society of International Law Proceedings 106 (2012): 332-334.

  • 20. May, Larry. “Jus Post Bellum Proportionality and the Fog of War.” European Journal of International Law 24(1) (2013): 315-333.

  • 21. May, Larry. “Reparations, Restitution, and Transitional Justice”: 32-48. In: Larry May and Andrew T. Forcehimes, eds. Morality, Jus Post Bellum, and International Law. New York: CUP, 2012.

  • 22. May, Larry, and Elizabeth Edenberg. “Introduction”: 1-25. In: Larry May and Elizabeth Edenberg, eds. Jus Post Bellum and Transitional Justice. New York: CUP, 2013.

  • 23. May, Larry, and Andrew T. Forcehimes. “Introduction”: 1-10. In: Larry May and Andrew T. Forcehimes, eds. Morality, Jus Post Bellum, and International Law. New York: CUP, 2012.

  • 24. Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (C.P.(51)104). The United Kingdom National Archives.

  • 25. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, ed. Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy: Records Related to the Conclusion of Treaty of Peace with Japan. Vol. 2, 3, 4, 5. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 2002.

  • 26. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, ed. Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy: Treaty of Peace with Japan Preparatory Work. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 2006.

  • 27. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, ed. Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy: Treaty of Peace with Japan Negotiation with the United States. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 2007.

  • 28. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Provisional Verbatim Minutes of the Conference for the Conclusion and Signature of the Treaty of Peace with Japan. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1951.

  • 29. Neff, Stephen C. “Conflict Termination and Peace-making in the Law of Nations: A Historical Perspective”: 77-91. In: Carsten Stahn and Jann K. Kleffner, eds. Jus Post Bellum – Towards a Law of Transition from Conflict to Peace. Hague: T·M·C·Asser Press, 2008.

  • 30. Österdahl, Inger. “Just War, Just Peace and the Jus post Bellum.Nordic Journal of International Law 81 (2012): 271-294.

  • 31. Österdahl, Inger, and Esther van Zadel. “What Will Jus Post Bellum Mean? Of New Wine and Old Bottles.” Journal of Conflict & Security Law 14(2) (2009): 175-207.

  • 32. Overseas Consultants, Inc. Report on Industrial Reparations Survey of Japan to the United States of America February 1948. New York: Overseas Consultants, 1948.

  • 33. Pauley, Edwin E. Report on Japanese Reparations to the President of the United States: November 1945 to April 1946. Washington, D.C.: Division of Publications Office of Public Affairs, 1946.

  • 34. Records of Proceedings: Conference for the Conclusion and Signature of the Treaty of Peace with Japan. Washington, D.C.: Department of State, 1951.

  • 35. Records of the Office of the Historian. Japanese Peace and Security Treaties, 1946-1952 [microfilm] (Lot File 78 D 173). Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room, Japanese National Diet Library.

  • 36. Records of the Office of Northeast Asian Affairs, Relating to the Treaty of Peace with Japan [microfilm] – Subject File, 1945-51 (Lot File 56 D 527). Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room, Japanese National Diet Library.

  • 37. Ronzitti, Natalino. “Reparation and Compensation”: 638-659. In: Nigel D. White and Christian Henderson, eds. Research Handbook on International Conflict and Security Law: Jus ad Bellum, Jus in Bello, and Jus post Bellum. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2013.

  • 38. Sari, Aurel. “The Status of Foreign Armed Forces Deployed in Post-Conflict Environments: A Search for Basic Principles”: 467-501. In: Carsten Stahn, Jennifer S. Easterday and Jens Iverson, eds. Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative Foundations. New York: OUP, 2014.

  • 39. Sassòli, Marco. “Reparation”: 279-290. In: Vincent Chetail, ed. Post-conflict Peacebuilding: A Lexicon. New York: OUP, 2009.

  • 40. Stahn, Carsten. “‘Jus ad bellum’, ‘jus in bello’ … ‘jus post bellum’? – Rethinking the Conception of the Law of Armed Force.” European Journal of International Law 17(5) (2007): 921-943.

  • 41. Stahn, Carsten. “Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Discipline(s)”: 93-112. In: Carsten Stahn and Jann K. Kleffner, eds. Jus Post Bellum – Towards a Law of Transition from Conflict to Peace. Hague: T·M·C·Asser Press, 2008.

  • 42. Stahn, Carsten. “The Future of Jus Post Bellum”: 231-237. In: Carsten Stahn and Jann K. Kleffner, eds. Jus Post Bellum – Towards a Law of Transition from Conflict to Peace. Hague: T·M·C·Asser Press, 2008.

  • 43. United States Department of State. [1945] Foreign Relations of the United States. Vol, 6.

  • 44. United States Department of State. [1947] Foreign Relations of the United States. Vol, 6.

  • 45. United States Department of State. [1950] Foreign Relations of the United States. Vol, 6.

  • 46. United States Department of State. [1951] Foreign Relations of the United States. Vol, 6.

  • 47. Yasamee, Heather J. and Hamilton, K. A., eds. Documents on British Policy Overseas. Series 2, Vol. 4. London: HMSO, 1991.

  • 48. Yoshida, Shigeru. Kaisō Jūnen [Ten Years Memoirs]. Vol. 3. Tokyo: Chuokoron-sha, INC, 1998.

  • 49. Yoshida, Shigeru. The Yoshida Memoirs: The Story of Japan in Crisis. Translated by Kenichi Yoshida. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1973.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search