Against the background of research conducted in other EU countries, Euroscepticism is a marginal sentiment among Poles. Nevertheless, this attitude and the arguments associated with it are noticeable in many areas in the public space: among members of the public presenting Eurosceptic arguments on the social media, journalists in press commentaries or politicians themselves. The aim of this article is to analyse the scale of such statements, their specific character and presence in the Polish press during the election and post-electoral period in 2015–2017. The study involved content analysis of selected text units which allowed the fundamental research question to be answered—namely, what is the nature of Eurosceptic attitudes manifested in the Polish press during the electoral/post-electoral period of lively discussions on the role of the European Union in Poland.
Beneš, V.; Chalániová, L. & Eberle, J. (2016), Euroscepticism and Trustbuilding, Prague European Summit Policy Paper, pp. 21–29.
Bijsmans, P. (2017), ‘EU media coverage in times of crisis: Euroscepticism becoming mainstream?’ in M. Caiani & S. Guerra (eds.) Euroscepticism, Democracy and the Media Communicating Europe, Contesting Europe, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 73–94. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59643-7_4
Brack, N. & Startin, N. (2015), ‘Introduction: Euroscepticism, from the margins to the mainstream,’ International Political Science Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 239–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512115577231
Condruz-Băcescu, M. (2014), ‘Euroscepticism across Europe: drivers and challenges,’ European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, no. 2, pp. 52–59.
Conti, N. (2017), ‘How the media make European citizens more Eurosceptic,’ in M. Caiani & S. Guerra (eds.) Euroscepticism, Democracy and the Media Communicating Europe, Contesting Europe, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 121–140. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59643-7_6
Crespy, A. & Verschueren, N. (2009), ‘From Euroscepticism to resistance to European integration: an interdisciplinary perspective,’ Perspective on European Politics and Society, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 377–393. https://doi.org/10.1080/15705850903105793
Davis, R. (2017), ‘Euroscepticism and opposition to British entry into the EEC, 1955–75,’ French Journal of British Studies, vol. xxii-2, pp. 1–15. https://doi.org/10.4000/rfcb.1364
Dutceac Segesten, A. & Bossetta, M. (2017), ‘The Eurosceptic Europeanization of public spheres: print and social media reactions to the 2014 European Parliament Elections,’ Comparative European Politics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 361–379. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41295-017-0099-5
Flood, C. & Usherwood, S. (2007), ‘Ideological factors in party alignments on the EU: a comparison of three cases,’ Paper delivered at the EUSA Tenth Biennial International Conference, Montreal, May 17–19.
Freeden, M. (1996), Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grimm, R. (2015), ‘The rise of the German Eurosceptic party Alternative für Deutschland, between ordoliberal critique and popular anxiety,’ International Political Science Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 264–278. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512115575384
Hänska, M. & Bauchowitz, S. (2017), ‘Tweeting for Brexit: how social media influenced the referendum,’ in J. Mair, T. Clark, R. Snoddy, & R. Tait (eds.) Brexit, Trump and the Media, Suffolk: Abramis, pp. 31–35.
Heft, A.; Wittwer, S. & Pfetsch B. (2017), ‘Divided they tweet? A comparative analysis of Twitter networks of pro- and anti-EU parties,’ in M. Caiani & S. Guerra (eds.) Euroscepticism, Democracy and the Media Communicating Europe, Contesting Europe, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 195–218. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59643-7_9
Jagers, J. & Walgrave, S. (2007), ‘Populism as political communication style. An empirical study of political parties’ discourse in Belgium,’ European Journal of Political Research, vol. 3, no. 43, pp. 319–345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2006.00690.x
Jasiewicz, K. (2004), ‘Polska u progu Unii Europejskiej: referendum akcesyjne a deficyt demokratyczny,’ in R. Markowski (ed.) Populizm a demokracja, Warszawa: ISP PAN, pp. 27–42.
Kasonta, A. (2015), British Euroscepticism, Bruges Group Research Paper, London: Bruges Group.
Kopecky, P. & Mudde, C. (2002), ‘The two sides of Euroscepticism. Party positions on European integration in East Central Europe,’ European Union Politics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 297–326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465116502003003002
Lasoń, M. (2011), ‘Eurosceptycyzm jako przejaw populizmu w praktyce politycznej III RP,’ Krakowskie Studia Międzynarodowe, no. 4, pp. 187–201.
Leconte, C. (2015), ‘From pathology to mainstream phenomenon: reviewing the Euroscepticism debate in research and theory,’ International Political Science Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 250–263. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512115576236
Lees, C. (2015), ‘The AfD: what kind of alternative for Germany?’ Paper prepared for presentation at the PSA 65th Annual International Conference at Sheffield City Hall and Town Hall, 30 March – 1 April 2015.
Mosca, L. (2017), ‘Comparing news diets, electoral choices and EU attitudes in Germany, Italy and the UK in the 2014 European Parliament election, Euroscepticism,’ in M. Caiani & S. Guerra (eds.) Euroscepticism, Democracy and the Media Communicating Europe, Contesting Europe, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 766–783. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-59643-7_7
Nalewajko, E. (2014), ‘Populizm w demokracji,’ in R. Markowski (ed.) Populizm a demokracja, Warszawa: ISP PAN.
Pacześniak, A. (2010), ‘Populizm w służbie eurosceptyków i euroentuzjastów,’ in J. M. De Waele & A. Pacześniak (eds.) Populizm w Europie. Defekt czy przejaw demokracji? Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza, pp. 148–152.
Sørensen, C. (2008), Love Me, Love Me Not: A Typology of Public Euroscepticism, EPERN Working Paper, no. 19, Guildford: European Parties Elections and Referendums Network.
Startin, N. (2015), ‘Have we reached a tipping point? The mainstreaming of Euroscepticism in the UK,’ International Political Science Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 311–323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512115574126
Stępińska, A.; Lipiński, A.; Hess, A. & Piontek, D. (2017), ‘A fourth wave of populism?’ in T. Aalberg, F. Esser, C. Reinemann, J. Strömback & C. de Vreese (eds.) Populist Political Communication in Europe, New York & London: Routledge, pp. 311–325.
Straw, W. (2011), Euroscepticism in the UK, London, IPPR.
Taggart, P. (1998), ‘A touchstone of dissent: Euroscepticism in contemporary Western European party systems,’ European Journal of Political Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 363–388. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.00387
Taggart, P. & Szczerbiak, A. (2002), The Party Politics of Euroscepticism in EU Member and Candidate States, SEI Working Paper, no. 51.
Usherwood, S.; Leruth, B. & Startin, N. (2017), ‘Euroscepticism and European (dis) integration in the age of Brexit,’ in S. Usherwood, B. Leruth & N. Startin (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Euroscepticism, London: Routledge, pp. 468–477.
Vasilopoulou, S. (2017), ‘Theory, concepts and research design in the study of Euroscepticism,’ in S. Usherwood, B. Leruth & N. Startin (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Euroscepticism, London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315464015-4
Verney, S. (2015), ‘Waking the ‘sleeping giant’ or expressing domestic dissent? Mainstreaming Euroscepticism in crisis-stricken Greece,’ International Political Science Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 279–295. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512115577146